Reassessing apoptosis in plants

  title={Reassessing apoptosis in plants},
  author={Martin Dickman and Brett Williams and Yurong Li and Paul de Figueiredo and Thomas J. Wolpert},
  journal={Nature Plants},
Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal… 
Apoptosis is not conserved in plants as revealed by critical examination of a model for plant apoptosis-like cell death
It is concluded that heat shock-induced cell death is an energy-independent process best matching definition of necrosis, supporting the viewpoint that apoptosis is not conserved across animal and plant kingdoms and demonstrates the importance of focusing on plant-specific aspects of cell death pathways.
Routes to cell death in animal and plant kingdoms: from classic apoptosis to alternative ways to die—a review
Non-apoptotic forms of cell death are best characterized in animals, whereas, in plants, the literature is less extensive, but the molecular executioners of plant cellDeath are becoming clearer.
Centrality of BAGs in Plant PCD, Stress Responses, and Host Defense.
BAKing up to Survive a Battle: Functional Dynamics of BAK1 in Plant Programmed Cell Death
Recent advances in elucidating the functions and possible mechanisms of BAK1 in controlling diverse forms of PCD are summarized and the involvement of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of multiple signaling component proteins in Bak1-mediated PCD is highlighted.
Cell Death in Plant Immunity.
The role and regulation of HR is discussed in these different contexts: pathogen recognition by the plant immune system, defense responses that are often accompanied by a form of regulated cell death known as the hypersensitive response, and autoimmune reactions during autoimmune reactions.
Disassembly of dying cells in diverse organisms
This review will describe morphologic features leading to apoptotic cell disassembly, as well as its regulation and function in mammalian cells and in other eukaryotic cells.
Apoptosis in plants: from semantic appeal to empirical rejection
This study provides a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis of cytological and biochemical events occurring during plant cell death previously classified as “AL-PCD” and invalidates the notion that apoptosis is conserved across animal and plant kingdoms.
Plant and animal PR1 family members inhibit programmed cell death and suppress bacterial pathogens in plant tissues.
A functional plant-based cDNA library screen identified possible anti-PCD genes, including one member of the PR1 family, designated P14a, from tomato, consistent with a role of PR1 in the suppression of cell death-dependent disease symptoms and a possible mode of action.
Meiotic viral attenuation through an ancestral apoptotic pathway
It is found that meiotically programmed mitochondrial release of the Endonuclease G (EndoG) homolog Nuc1 occurs during sporulation in budding yeast, and is pro-survival, protecting spores from the detrimental consequences of unrestrained viral expression.


Apoptotic-like regulation of programmed cell death in plants
The features of apoptotic-like PCD in plants are examined and the probable conserved components such as mitochondrial regulation through the release of apoptogenic proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space, the possible conserved or converged features such as “caspase-like” molecules which drive cellular destruction and the emerging unique features of plant PCD such as chloroplast involvement in cell death regulation are examined.
Centrality of host cell death in plant-microbe interactions.
It is suggested that it is not cell death as such but rather the processes leading to cell death that contribute to the outcome of a given plant-pathogen interaction.
The Life and Death of a Plant Cell.
The implications of the paradox that is functional conservation of apoptotic hallmarks in plants in the absence of core mammalian apoptosis regulators are discussed and whether an equivalent form of death occurs in plants is discussed.
Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants.
This review describes one of these plant cell death processes, namely the apoptotic-like PCD (AL-PCD), and explores the possible cellular 'executioners' that are responsible for the hallmark features of the cellular destruction.
Programmed cell death in plants: distinguishing between different modes.
In plant cell cultures an apoptotic-like PCD (AL-PCD) has been identified that is fairly rapid and results in a distinct corpse morphology which is visible 4-6 h after release of cytochrome c and other apoptogenic proteins.
Morphological classification of plant cell deaths
A classification based on morphological criteria is suggested of PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility.
Classes of programmed cell death in plants, compared to those in animals.
  • W. G. van Doorn
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Journal of experimental botany
  • 2011
It is suggested here that tonoplast rupture and the subsequent rapid destruction of the cytoplasm can distinguish two large PCD classes, and the 'autolytic' class of plant PCD can be merged with the autophagic PCD type in animal cells.
Programmed cell death in plants: lessons from bacteria?
A cellular suicide strategy of plants: vacuole-mediated cell death
Plants might have evolved a VPE-mediated vacuolar system as a cellular suicide strategy through disrupting the vacuole in pathogenesis and development, and there is limited sequence identity between the two enzymes.