Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis.

@article{Gregg2007ReasonsFI,
  title={Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis.},
  author={Lynsey Gregg and Christine Barrowclough and Gillian Haddock},
  journal={Clinical psychology review},
  year={2007},
  volume={27 4},
  pages={
          494-510
        }
}
Around half of all patients with schizophrenia are thought to abuse drugs or alcohol and there is good evidence to suggest that they have poorer outcomes than their non substance using counterparts. However, despite more than twenty years of research there is still no consensus on the aetiology of increased rates of substance use in people with psychosis. There is a clear need to understand the reasons for such high rates of substance use if treatments designed to help patients abstain from… 
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Clinical experience suggests that people with psychosis generally show a diverging substance use pattern compared with other people with ‘dual disorders’. The aim of this study was to describe
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This thesis focusses on the self-reported reasons for cannabis use among people with psychosis, what is wanted from a psychological intervention, including the treatment preferences within this
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References

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TLDR
Drugs were reportedly used to increase pleasure, to‘get high’ and to reduce depression, however, subjective effects of increased depression and positive symptoms were also reported.
Reasons for Cannabis use in Psychosis
Objective: To examine the reasons for cannabis use among individuals with psychotic disorders. Method: Forty-nine people with psychotic disorders in treatment with community health centres in
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TLDR
Little empirical support is found for models suggesting that schizophrenic symptoms lead to substance use (self-medication), that substance use leads to schizophrenia, or that there is a genetic relationship between schizophrenia and substance use.
Substance Use in Persons With Schizophrenia: Baseline Prevalence and Correlates From the NIMH CATIE Study
TLDR
Analysis of baseline correlates of substance use in the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness project suggests that substance use disorders in schizophrenia are especially common among men with a history of childhood conduct disorder problems and that childhood conduct Disorder problems are potent risk factors for substance use Disorders in schizophrenia.
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    British Journal of Psychiatry
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TLDR
The presence of problem substance use had only modest impact on service use, symptoms or social functioning for this group of patients with schizophrenia, which has important implications for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group.
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TLDR
In both groups, addiction and positive affect enhancement were the composite variable scores correlated most consistently with concurrent amount and frequency of use.
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TLDR
While all three groups reported high levels of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, a relationship between emotional abuse and substance use was observed only for people with schizophrenia, and there were no differences between the two schizophrenia groups in psychiatric symptoms or level of functioning.
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TLDR
Young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more.
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