Reasons as Defaults

@inproceedings{Horty2012ReasonsAD,
  title={Reasons as Defaults},
  author={John F. Horty},
  year={2012}
}
  • J. Horty
  • Published 25 April 2012
  • Philosophy
Introduction I Default logic 1 A Primer on Default Logic 1.1 Basic concepts 1.1.1 Default rules 1.1.2 Priority relations 1.1.3 Theories and scenarios 1.2 Central definitions 1.2.1 Binding defaults 1.2.2 Proper scenarios and extensions 1.3 Extensions and conclusions 1.3.1 Theories with multiple extensions 1.3.2 Theories without extensions 2 From Defaults to Reasons 2.1 An austere theory of reasons 2.2 Developing the theory 2.2.1 Conflict, strength, and defeat 2.2.2 Reasons and enablers 2.2.3… 
Default Rules in the Logic of First-Degree Entailments
  • K. Bimbó
  • Philosophy
    New Essays on Belnap-­Dunn Logic
  • 2019
TLDR
This paper scrutinizes certain features of non-monotonicity of a consequence relation of classical logic to legitimize it and defines two notions of extensions with default rules and illustrates their use by some standard as well as new examples.
A logic of defeasible argumentation: Constructing arguments in justification logic
TLDR
This paper defines a new justification logic that relies on operational semantics for default logic and develops a semantics for “defeaters”: conflicting reasons forming a basis to doubt the original conclusion or to believe an opposite statement.
A hyperintensional logical framework for deontic reasons
TLDR
It is argued that normative reasons are hyperintensional and a formal account of this thesis is put forward and the philosophical import of this proposal is discussed.
What ’ s in a Default ? Thoughts on the Nature and Role of Defaults in Nonmonotonic Reasoning
TLDR
It is argued that defaults of normality are best regarded as statements in a scientific theory, which can be given by a logic of weak conditionals, in which a default is treated as a counterfactual normative statement.
A logic of default justifications
TLDR
A logic of default justifications that relies on operational semantics that is able to address interactions of normal defaults without relying on priorities among default rules and introduces the possibility of extension revision for normal default theories.
Defeasible normative reasoning
TLDR
It will be conceived as the sum of a purely normative ranking function and an epistemic ranking function (as suggested in qualitative decision theory) and the distinctions defends this proposal with a comparative discussion of some critical examples and some other distinctions made in the literature.
Reasons and Normativity
Normative reasons are of constant importance to us as agents trying to navigate through life. For this reason it is natural and vital to ask philosophical questions about reasons and the normative
A logic of default justifications
We define a logic of default justifications that relies on operational semantics. One of the key features that is absent in standard justification logics is the possibility to weigh different
The Logic of Obligation as Weakest Permission - (Short Version)
TLDR
It is shown that practical, rational recommendations in games provide a natural, concrete application of an understanding of obligations and permissions, and that it gives rise to an interesting interplay between deontic and alethic notions.
Obligation as Optimal Goal Satisfaction
TLDR
A non-modal approach to the treatment of deontic concepts deals with problems of contrary-to-duty obligations and normative conflicts, and it is argued that the approach is useful for many other applications, including abductive explanations, defeasible reasoning, combinatorial optimisation, and reactive systems of the production system variety.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 94 REFERENCES
Nonmonotonic logic - context-dependent reasoning
TLDR
Modal logic, nonmonotonic logic of pure necessitation and autoepistemic logics, and relations among non monotonic formalisms are studied.
Priorities on defaults with prerequisites, and their application in treating specificity in terminological default logic
TLDR
The present paper addresses the problem of modifying terminological default logic such that more specific defaults are preferred and obtains an automated default reasoning procedure that takes specificity into account.
Adding Priorities and Specificity to Default Logic
TLDR
This paper presents a prioritized version of DL for normal defaults, called PDL, and adapts ideas underlying Geffner and Pearl's conditional entailment to show how the priorities needed to handle specificity can be defined.
A Logic for Default Reasoning
  • R. Reiter
  • Philosophy, Computer Science
    Artif. Intell.
  • 1980
A dialectical model of assessing conflicting arguments in legal reasoning
TLDR
This approach complements two other lines of research in AI and Law, investigations of precedent-based reasoning and the development of ‘procedural’, or ‘dialectical’ models of legal argument.
A Clash of Intuitions: The Current State of Nonmonotonic Multiple Inheritance Systems
TLDR
TMOIS provided a definition and analysis of a theoretically sound multiple inheritance system, accompanied by inference algorithms, and other definitions for inheritance have since been proposed that are equally sound and intuitive, but do not always agree with TMOIS.
Moral dilemmas and nonmonotonic logic
TLDR
It is shown that nonmonotonic logics provide a natural framework for reasoning about moral dilemmas, perhaps even more useful than the ordinary modal framework, and that the issues surrounding the treatment of exceptional information within these logics run parallel to some of the problems posed by conditional oughts.
The Mathematics of Inheritance Systems
TLDR
A formal mathematical theory of inheritance is presented and it is shown how the defects in existing systems can be corrected, and how a correct implementation on a parallel marker propagation machine (PMPM) may be achieved through conditioning.
Non-Monotonic Logic I
...
...