Reasoning and the Visual-Impedance Hypothesis

@inproceedings{Knauff2003ReasoningAT,
  title={Reasoning and the Visual-Impedance Hypothesis},
  author={Markus Knauff and Philip N. Johnson-Laird},
  booktitle={Spatial Cognition},
  year={2003}
}
The visual-impedance hypothesis postulates that relational expressions which elicit visual images without a spatial component impede reasoning (Knauff and Johnson-Laird, in press). The goal of the present article is to summarize some experimental findings that support this hypothesis. Previous studies yielded four sorts of relations: (1) visuo-spatial relations, such as "above-below", that are easy to envisage visually and spatially, (2) visual relations, such as "cleaner-dirtier" that are easy… 
Processing Spatial Relations: A Meta-Analysis
TLDR
A meta-analysis of 35 studies about spatial relational reasoning about mental model theory and working memory finds that the ability to reason about relations is relevant for many spatial cognitive processes.

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