Realizing Solidarity

  title={Realizing Solidarity},
  author={John Brueggemann and Terry Boswell},
  journal={Work and Occupations},
  pages={436 - 482}
In a time of economic depression and racism more overt than anything we now experience, the unions of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) during the 1930s and 1940s forged a lasting interracial solidarity within the industrial working class. The authors tell the stories of how three CIO organizing drives achieved interracial solidarity. In 1933, the United Mine Workers (UMW) adopted the “UMW formula” for placing Black workers in positions as union officers and organizers. Adopted… Expand
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