Realized vs apparent reduction in enemies of the European starling

Release from parasites, pathogens or predators (i.e. enemies) is a widely cited ‘rule of thumb’ to explain the proliferation of nonindigenous species in their introduced regions (i.e. the ‘enemy release hypothesis’, or ERH). Indeed, profound effects of some parasites and predators on host populations are well documented. However, some support for the ERH… (More)