Realistic Observation in Twelfth-Century England

@article{Gransden1972RealisticOI,
  title={Realistic Observation in Twelfth-Century England},
  author={Antonia Gransden},
  journal={Speculum},
  year={1972},
  volume={47},
  pages={29 - 51}
}
T. D. KENDRICK has already commented on "nascent medieval topography" (which he describes as "rather casual") in England, and cites examples of topographical descriptions from chronicles.' It is proposed here to examine in more detail the ability of medieval writers in twelfth-century England to see and describe the world around them. Besides topographical observation, I shall include observation of small objects (such as goldsmiths' work and books), of mankind itself (people's physical… 
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References

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This story is fully discussed by
    For the poem and the topography (which dates from the late seventh or early eighth century) see ibid. iI. cxxi-ii, and
    • Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, xLviii
    • 1966
    The laudatory attitude to cities in classical literature is well represented by Aelius Aristides' Roman Oration; printed in tianslation by
    • The Ruling Power (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new sensies, XLIII
    See Fitz Stephen's description of London in his Life of Saint Thomas in Materials for the History of Thomas Becket
      Gerald of Wales retired to Lincoln to write and study in 1196; Giraldus, i. 93, and Butler, op. cit. p. 127 and n. 2. Map was precentor of Lincoln
        Gerald's knowledge of natural history is fully discussed by U. T. Holmes
        • 136 Giraldus, v-ii. 74. 187 Life of St Hugh
        • 1936
        Diceto studied in Paris, probably at the university and had other close contacts with France and the Angevin empire; see The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto
          Gerald accompanies this description with details about its habits, how "it would fly over the surface of the river, beating the water with its wings, and giving vent to loud cries
            For the bridge see C. Port, Dictionnaire Historique Geographique et Bibliographique
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