Real-time detection of the nanoparticle induced phytotoxicity in rice root tip through the visible red emissions of Eu3+ ions.

Phytotoxicity is one of the most important factors involved in the reduction of crop production. With the introduction of NaBiF4 nanoparticles, the effect of the particle size (>50 nm) on rice development was systematically studied. Through the exogenous treatment of multiple concentrations of nanoparticles, the primary root length, lateral root number, and… (More)