Shape-constrained Gaussian process regression for facial-point-based head-pose normalization
Detecting and tracking human faces in video sequences is useful in a number of applications such as gesture recognition and human-machine interaction. In this paper, we show that online appearance models (holistic approaches) can be used for simultaneously tracking the head, the lips, the eyebrows, and the eyelids in monocular video sequences. Unlike previous approaches to eyelid tracking, we show that the online appearance models can be used for this purpose. Neither color information nor intensity edges are used by our proposed approach. More precisely, we show how the classical appearance-based trackers can be upgraded in order to deal with fast eyelid movements. The proposed eyelid tracking is made robust by avoiding eye feature extraction. Experiments on real videos show the usefulness of the proposed tracking schemes as well as their enhancement to our previous approach.