Real-space direct visualization of the layer-dependent roughening transition in nanometer-thick Pb films.

@article{Calleja2006RealspaceDV,
  title={Real-space direct visualization of the layer-dependent roughening transition in nanometer-thick Pb films.},
  author={Fabian Calleja and M. C. G. Passeggi and Juan Jos{\'e} Hinarejos and Amadeo L V{\'a}zquez de Parga and Rodolfo Miranda},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2006},
  volume={97 18},
  pages={186104}
}
By means of variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy we studied the thickness-dependent roughening temperature of Pb films grown on Cu(111), whose electronic structure and total energy is controlled by quantum well states created by the spatial confinement of electrons. Large scale STM images are employed to quantify the layer population, i.e., the fraction of the surface area covered by different Pb thicknesses, directly in the real space as a function of temperature… CONTINUE READING