Reactive Oxygen Species and the Hypomotility of the Gall Bladder as Targets for the Treatment of Gallstones with Melatonin: A Review

  title={Reactive Oxygen Species and the Hypomotility of the Gall Bladder as Targets for the Treatment of Gallstones with Melatonin: A Review},
  author={Sreedevi Koppisetti and Bharat Jenigiri and Mar{\'i}a Pilar Terr{\'o}n and Sandra Tengattini and Hiroshi Tamura and Luis J. Flores and Dun-Xian Tan and Russel Joseph Reiter},
  journal={Digestive Diseases and Sciences},
Free radical-mediated damage of the gall bladder epithelium predisposes to the development of both gall bladder inflammation and gallstone formation, which often coexist. Melatonin, a pineal and gut secretory product, due to its antioxidant activity along with its effect on the aging gall bladder myocytes, inhibits gallstone formation. Melatonin reduces the biliary levels of cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol absorption across the intestinal epithelium and by increasing the conversion of… 

Role of the Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Gallstone Formation: An EPR Study.

In oxidative stress, bilirubin acting as a second type photosensitizer undergoes rapid oxidation and free radical polymerization that plays an important role in the nucleation and deposition of gallstones.

Concept of the pathogenesis and treatment of cholelithiasis.

Gallstone disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases with a substantial burden to health care systems and corticosteroids and oral contraceptives, which contain hormones related to steroid hormones, may be regarded as a model system of cholelithiasis development in man.

Two glucosinolates and their effects related to the prevention of cholesterol gallstones: a review (Dos glucosinolatos y sus efectos asociados con la prevención de cálculos biliares de colesterol: una revisión)

Two glucosinolates and their degradation products are secondary metabolites which have shown antioxidant properties and inhibitory properties against the hepatic cholesterol; these effects are very important for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

Reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress: a newly-discovered genre for melatonin

Research in the next decade will help to define the role of melatonin in age-related diseases and in determining successful aging, and improving health and the quality of life in the aged should be an aim of this research.

Blood transcriptional signatures of gallstone pathogenesis in patients with cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis Running Title: Blood gene expression gallstone

The results showed that peripheral whole blood gene expression profile strongly reflects tissue specific molecular signalling in gallstone pathogenesis, and indicate that a blood-based gene expression signature has promising accuracy for monitorize pathogenesis of disease in CHL patients, CHDL patients and unaffected controls.

Melatonin as a free radical scavenger in the ovarian follicle.

Melatonin treatment could become a new cure for improving oocyte quality and luteal function in infertile women and reduces intra-follicular oxidative damage, and elevates fertilization and pregnancy rates.

Molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of the chloroform extract of Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. et Grev.) Spring in a lithiasic rat model

CE of Selaginella lepidophylla prevented the damage caused by lithiasic process by improving the active secretion in the proximal tubules, counteracting the ROS and lipoperoxidation effects by oxalate and decreased the OAT3 expression on kidney.



Evidence for oxidative stress in the gall bladder mucosa of gall stone patients.

  • A. Geetha
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of biochemistry, molecular biology, and biophysics : JBMBB : the official journal of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists
  • 2002
The data show that gall stone patients have a high level of oxidative stress in the gall bladder mucosa, a finding that may be related to a decreased activity of functional enzymes in mucosal cells.

Melatonin Prevents Pigment Gallstone Formation Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Guinea Pigs

Pretreatment of guinea pigs with MLT at a dose of 1,000 μg/kg significantly decreased the incidence of pigment gallstone formation at day 14 after ligation, as compared to no pretreatment.

[The impact of selective cycloxygenase-2 inhibitor celexibo on the formation of cholesterol gallstone].

Celexibo group had lower risk to get gallstones than gallstone group and COX-2 is highly expressed in gallbladder mucosa of gallstone, which suggests that there is certain inflammatory mechanism in the cholesterol gallstone formation.

The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD) of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group). Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg

Role of Gallbladder Mucin in Pathophysiology of Gallstones

It is suggested that inhibition of mucin release may prevent cholesterol stone formation during high‐risk periods or after dissolution therapy with bile salts.

Role of gallbladder mucus hypersecretion in the evolution of cholesterol gallstones.

The results suggest that the increase in cholesterol content of bile in cholesterolfed prairie dogs stimulates gallbladder mucus hypersecretion, and that gallbladders mucus gel is a nucleating agent for biliary cholesterol.

The potential site of impaired gallbladder contractility in an animal model of cholesterol gallstone disease.

The primary smooth muscle defect in this animal model of cholesterol gallstone disease does not reside in the intracellular signal transduction pathways or in the contractile apparatus but instead involves the sarcolemmal membrane.

Therapeutic Effect of Melatonin in Patients With Functional Dyspepsia

Melatonin can be considered as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of ulcerlike dyspepsia and correlated independently with significantly improved patients health.

Inhibition of human gall bladder mucus synthesis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

Treatment with aspirin led to a significant reduction in mucus biosynthesis by the gall bladder mucosa, consistent with a role for aspirin in the prevention of gall stones.