Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions ▶Neuroinflammation: Modulating Pesticide-Induced Neurodegeneration Readily Releasable Secretory Vesicles

Abstract

Synonyms Electrocommunication; Electrical communication Definition Every motor act that an animal produces will elicit sensory input from its own receptors [1]. Termed ▶reafference, this self-generated sensory input can be quite useful. For example, bats listen to the echoes of their own ultrasonic calls to navigate through the night, and sensory feedback from skeletal muscles can be used to improve motor control. On the other hand, reafferent input is often not informative, and it can even interfere with the detection of external sensory input. A major problem faced by all animals is distinguishing reafferent sensory input from external sensory input. This issue is particularly relevant to the subject of animal communication. A communicating animal must produce its own signal as well as detect the signals produced by other individuals. A central question in the neurobiology of communication behavior is how sensory systems are able to discriminate self-generated from externally produced signals. Consider the problem of reafference for visual perception. Any movement of the eyes, either directly or indirectly, due to movements of the head or body, causes the visual input to the retina to shift dramatically. How does the visual system compensate for this shift and maintain sensitivity to external visual stimuli? Early experiments suggested that every time a motor command that induces eye movement is issued, a copy of that command is also sent to the visual system, which generates a negative image of the visual input expected to result from that movement [1,2]. Combining this negative image with actual visual input eliminates any self-induced changes. As a result, the perceived visual world maintains its stability and only externally generated visual inputs are detected. This basic mechanism relies on two distinct features. First, the timing of motor output must be relayed to the sensory system through what is referred to as a ▶corollary discharge [2]. Second, the corollary discharge must activate a negative image of the reafferent input, a so-called ▶efference copy [1]. Research on weakly electric fish has provided insight into the neuronal implementation of these two features [3,4].

Extracted Key Phrases

1 Figure or Table

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Carlson2008ReactiveOS, title={Reactive Oxygen Species: Superoxide Anions ▶Neuroinflammation: Modulating Pesticide-Induced Neurodegeneration Readily Releasable Secretory Vesicles}, author={Bruce A. Carlson}, year={2008} }