Reactivation of Epstein‐Barr virus from latency

  title={Reactivation of Epstein‐Barr virus from latency},
  author={Wolfgang Amon and Paul J. Farrell},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
The general problem in cancer treatment centres on finding agents that specifically affect cancer cells without damaging normal cells. The differences between cancer cells and normal cells are usually very subtle but about 15% of all human cancers involve a virus infection, for example the Epstein‐Barr virus associated cancers. In these cancers, every tumour cell carries the virus in a latent infection but the number of normal cells infected is very low. So a treatment that could somehow cause… 

The Molecular Basis of Lytic Induction Therapy in Relation to Gamma herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV)-Associated, AIDS-Related Tumors

The goal of this approach is to convert the latent type of EBV infection that normally occurs in tumor cells into the lytic form of viral infection, thereby using the virus itself to kill tumor cells.

Development of a novel inducer for EBV lytic therapy.

Regulation and dysregulation of Epstein–Barr virus latency: Implications for the development of autoimmune diseases

Enhanced lytic replication results in new infection events and EBV-associated transformation events, and seems to be a risk factor both for malignant transformation and the development of autoimmune diseases.


Results presented in this thesis strengthen the notion that EBV replication actively modulates the functioning of the immune system at different levels through complex interactions of viral products with several types of cells and contributes to immune suppression, autoimmunity and tumorogenesis through a number of mechanisms whose details require further characterization.

The role of the microenvironment on the regulation of Epstein-Barr virus latent gene expression

Motivated by the lack of in vitro models in which to study the interaction of EBV with the malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells, the results provide evidence for an important role for the cytokines secreted by CD4+ T or other inflammatory cells in the modulation ofEBV latent gene expression.

Regulation of the latent-lytic switch in Epstein-Barr virus.

An oncogenic Epstein Barr virus developing diseases and cancer in human

The present paper deals with the study of Epstein Barr virus causing several diseases including cancer in human, which ranges from infectious mononucleosis to the cancerous Burkitt’s lymphoma.

Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by histone deacetylase inhibitors

The current findings suggest that acetylation of non-histone proteins might also play a role in the regulation of EBV lytic cycle upon HDAC inhibition, and propose possible strategies in using HDAC inhibitors for the treatment ofEBV-associated cancers.

Epstein–Barr Virus: Diseases Linked to Infection and Transformation

The spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells are reviewed and the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation are described.

Lytic Induction Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive B-Cell Lymphomas

The addition of GCV to either gemcitabine- or doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs for EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease in patients.



Biology and disease associations of Epstein-Barr virus.

  • D. Crawford
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
Recent views on the EBV life cycle and its interlinks with normal B-cell biology are described, and how this interrelationship may be upset and result in EBV-associated disease is discussed.

Gene therapy strategies for treating Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas: comparison of two different Epstein-Barr virus-based vectors.

B cell lymphomas in immunocompromised patients frequently contain the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome (MacMahon et al, 1991), suggesting that gene therapy strategies that target EBV-positive cells

Demonstration of the Burkitt's lymphoma Epstein-Barr virus phenotype in dividing latently infected memory cells in vivo

It is shown that most infected cells in the blood express no detectable latent mRNA or proteins, which suggests that BL may be a tumor of a latently infected memory B cell that is stuck proliferating because it is a tumor and, therefore, constitutively expressing only EBNA1.

Eradication of latent Epstein-Barr virus by hydroxyurea alters the growth-transformed cell phenotype.

In vitro studies indicated that low concentrations of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, hydroxyurea, completely eliminated Epstein-Barr virus episomes from latently infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell subsets, providing the first example of chemotherapeutic eradication of a latent herpesvirus from any cell population.

Lytic Induction Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive B-Cell Lymphomas

The addition of GCV to either gemcitabine- or doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs for EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease in patients.

Chemotherapy induces lytic EBV replication and confers ganciclovir susceptibility to EBV-positive epithelial cell tumors.

It is demonstrated that a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, including cis-platinum, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and taxol, induce the switch from the latent to lytic form of EBV infection in tumor cells, and suggests that GCV enhances the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy for the treatment ofEBV-positive epithelial cell tumors.

Immunohistology of Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in B cell disorders from immunocompromised individuals.

Proliferating B cell lesions developing in a series of immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients and patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome were examined for Epstein-Barr virus and cellular gene expression using immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting techniques, and results indicate that all the lesions examined were consistent with a latent, nonproductive type of infection.

Immunotherapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated cancers.

The safety and efficacy of adoptively transferred, gene-marked virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes as prophylaxis and treatment of EBV-LPD in recipients of T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow and methods for the generation of antigen-specific lines are studied.

Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in EBV-associated malignancies using adenovirus vectors in vitro and in vivo.

The results suggest that induction of lytic EBV infection in tumors, in combination with GCV, may be an effective strategy for treating EBV-associated malignancies.