Reactions of a group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) to their mirror-images: Evidence of self-recognition

  title={Reactions of a group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) to their mirror-images: Evidence of self-recognition},
  author={Vera Walraven and Linda van Elsacker and Rudolf Frans Verheyen},
A group of seven pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) was tested for their mirror-image reactions during a ten-day experiment. The time spent viewing the mirror waned quickly. Little social responses directed towards the mirror were observed. Self-directed behaviors were shown from testday one on. It was concluded that four out of seven animals could correctly identify their mirror-image, one infant was not (yet) able to do so, and for two other individuals the results were inconclusive. 
There is no other monkey in the mirror for spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).
In contrast to most findings on other species, spider monkeys did not treat their image as another monkey during their initial exposure to the mirror, and these responses recommend spider monkeys as good candidates for further explorations into monkey self-recognition.
Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition
These findings provide the first evidence of mirror self- Recognition in a non-mammalian species and suggest that essential components of human self-recognition have evolved independently in different vertebrate classes with a separate evolutionary history.
Investigating self-recognition in bonobos: mirror exposure reduces looking time to self but not unfamiliar conspecifics
Investigation of how bonobos respond to different types of images of themselves and others, both before and after prolonged mirror exposure found that subjects paid significantly less attention to contingent images of ourselves than to non-contingent images of itself and unfamiliar individuals, suggesting they perceived the non- Contingent self-images as novel.
Small Mirrors Do the Trick: A Simple, but Effective Method to Study Mirror Self-Recognition in Chimpanzees
Handheld mirrors provide a more sensitive measure for MSR within and likely between primate species than the traditional large mirrors, and thereby are a potentially valuable tool for studying self-awareness across species.
A social cichlid fish failed to pass the mark test
Results show a lack of contingency checking and mark-directed behaviours, meaning that N. pulcher failed to pass the mark test and did not recognise their self-image in the mirror.
The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes
It is shown that lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) fail to use the mirror to find surreptitiously placed marks on their head, in spite of being strongly motivated to retrieve directly visible marks from the mirror surface itself and from their own limbs.
Attention following and nonverbal referential communication in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)
An exploratory study, which applied the ‘Social Attention Hypothesis’ (that individuals accord and receive attention as a function of dominance) to attention following, showed that chimpanzees were more likely to follow the attention of the dominant individual.
A neuroanatomical predictor of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees
The results suggest that self-recognition may have co-emerged with adaptations to frontoparietal circuitry, and chimpanzees with more human-like behavior show morehuman-like SLFIII connectivity.
Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates
It is concluded that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs—are capable of mirror self-recognition.
Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images
It is found that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images, which may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought.


Absence of self-recognition in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis) following prolonged exposure to a mirror.
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    Developmental psychobiology
  • 1977
The data indicate possible differences between great apes and monkeys in self-awareness and a more explicit test of self-recognition yielded negative results.
Not all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show self-recognition
There are individual differences in mirror recognition behavior in chimpanzees, and that further consideration of the factors contributing to this phenomenon is needed, including the development of additional tests for self-recognition.
Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: The evolution of self-awareness in primates
The methodology and evidence for self-recognition in primates along with the assumption that this ability is an indicator of self-awareness are reviewed, and the failure of the gorilla to master the task is discussed in some detail.
Development of self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
The results suggest that self-recognition occurs at a slightly older age in chimpanzees than in human infants, and conform to the general pattern that great apes exhibit many cognitive skills comparable to those of 2-year-old humans.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence
: Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were
Use of a mirror to direct their responses in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata)
Two male Japanese monkeys used a mirror to inspect an object attached to their bodies but not directly visible and used the mirror to locate a picture projected on a screen to the left or right rear side of the cage.
Self-awareness in bonobos and chimpanzees: A comparative perspective
Bonobos are the only species of great ape for which there are no data concerning self-recognition. Although there is little evidence reported for self-recognition in New or Old World monkeys (see