Gramian-Based Reachability Metrics for Bilinear Networks
Controllability metrics based on the controllability Gramian have been widely used in linear control theory, and have recently seen renewed interests in the study of complex networks of dynamical systems. For example, the minimum eigenvalue and the trace of the Gramian are related to the worst-case and average minimum input energy, respectively, to steer the state from the origin to a target state. This paper explores similar questions that remain unanswered for bilinear control systems. In the context of complex networks, bilinear systems characterize scenarios where an actuator not only can affect the state of a node, but also can affect the strength of the interconnections among some neighboring nodes. Under the assumption that the infinity norm of the input is bounded by some function of the network dynamic matrices, we derive a lower bound on the minimum input energy to steer the state of a bilinear network from the origin to any reachable target state based on the generalized reachability Gramian of bilinear systems. We also provide a lower bound on the average minimum input energy over all target states on the unit hypersphere in the state space. Based on the reachability metrics proposed, we propose an actuator selection method that provides guaranteed minimum average input energy.