Re-assessing the Role of Gender-Related Cognitions for Self-Esteem: The Importance of Gender Typicality for Cisgender Adults

  title={Re-assessing the Role of Gender-Related Cognitions for Self-Esteem: The Importance of Gender Typicality for Cisgender Adults},
  author={Charlotte Chucky Tate and Jay N. Bettergarcia and Lindsay M. Brent},
  journal={Sex Roles},
Gender-related cognitions have been central to accounts of well-being in children and adults in the United States. Yet, the child and adult literatures are currently not aligned in how they measure these experiences, creating an asymmetry in scientific understanding. The current investigation aligns these literatures by using the short-form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem 1981) (adult literature) and a modified version of Egan and Perry’s (2001) Gender Typicality Scale (child… 
Is being gender nonconforming distressing? It depends where you live: gender equality across 15 nations predicts how much gender nonconformity is related to self-esteem
Previous findings on psychological problems related to gender nonconformity should be considered within a broader macrosocial context that may constrain people's freedom to move against gender role norms.
Navigating identity: Experiences of binary and non-binary transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) adults
It is crucial that professional and lay communities alike begin to take two steps moving forward: 1) explicitly acknowledge the existence of non-binary TGNC identities and 2) work to achieve fluency regarding the unique needs and experiences of this population.
The Relation Between Gender Identity and Well-Being
It is found that the negative relation between gender centrality and well-being might be mediated by perceived pressure to conform to the masculine role among men and perceived gender inequality among women.
Cisgender Men and Trans Prejudice: Relationships With Sexual Orientation and Gender Self-Esteem
  • V. Anderson
  • Psychology
    Psychology of Men & Masculinity
  • 2018
Strong identification with the male gender group, or gender self-esteem, predicts trans prejudice in heterosexual men. Less is known about whether gender self-esteem predicts gay and bisexual men’s
The Association Between Men’s Concern About Demonstrating Masculine Characteristics and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors: Findings from the Dominican Republic
The association between gender role conflict/stress (GRC/S)—men’s concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics—and three different sexual risk behaviors among a sample of heterosexual men in the Dominican Republic who were participating in an HIV prevention intervention is examined.
Extending the Legacy of Sandra Bem: Psychological Androgyny as a Touchstone Conceptual Advance for the Study of Gender in Psychological Science
We retrace Bem’s original formulations for defining and assessing the concept of psychological androgyny in the United States. By focusing on the early conceptual aspects of Bem’s research, we
Recalled Childhood Gender-Related Play Behaviour and Current Gender-Related Occupational Interests in University Students: Examining the Mediating Roles of Gender Compatibility, Goal Endorsement, and Occupational Stereotype Flexibility
Substantial average gender differences in childhood play behaviour and occupational interests have been well-documented. Recent research shows that childhood gender-related play behaviour
Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic–Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults
People who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic–racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains, and the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains is recommended.
The Operationalisation of Sex and Gender in Quantitative Health–Related Research: A Scoping Review
An overview of recent instruments for the operationalisation of sex and gender in health-related research beyond a concept of mutually exclusive binary categories as male or masculine vs. female or feminine is provided.
Pilot Results from the First HIV/AIDS Intervention Among Transgender Women in the Middle East: Gender Affirmation and Social Support from Within Trans Communities in Beirut, Lebanon
It is shown for the first time that the adapted intervention, Baynetna, and its constructs, are applicable in this context outside the United States, and support the hypothesis that the Gender Affirmation model is applicable to the Lebanese context.


Masculinity, femininity, and gender-related traits: a conceptual analysis and critique of current research.
  • J. Spence
  • Psychology
    Progress in experimental personality research
  • 1984
Integrating the Study of Transgender Spectrum and Cisgender Experiences of Self-Categorization from a Personality Perspective
We advocate for the integration of transgender spectrum experiences alongside cisgender experiences (i.e., having the same current gender identity label as one's birth-assigned gender category) to
Gender Identity and Adjustment in Middle Childhood
This article has two purposes. The first is to present a brief (and speculative) account of the developmental origins of the several components of gender identity featured in the multidimensional
Gender identity: a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment.
Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment.
Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity.
Correlations of the self-ratings with stereotype scores and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were low in magnitude, suggesting that sex role expectations do not distort self-concepts.
Toward an LGBT-informed paradigm for children who break gender norms: comment on Drummond et al. (2008) and Rieger et al. (2008).
It is concluded that understanding the development of children presumed most likely to grow up with sexual minority identities requires a consideration of the cultural contexts in which identities develop and in which psychologists theorize.
Considering Lesbian Identity from a Social–Psychological Perspective: Two Different Models of “Being a Lesbian”
  • C. Tate
  • Sociology
    Journal of lesbian studies
  • 2012
Two new models of a definition of “lesbian” are proposed using principles of social psychology that utilizes the premise that gender lacks a categorical essence and separates behavioral adherence to cultural stereotypes of femininity and masculinity from one's gender self-categorization.
Sex role orientation and self-esteem: a critical meta-analytic review.
  • B. Whitley
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1983
The results of the meta-analysis were most supportive of the masculinity model and showed that the strength of observed relations between sex role orientation and self- esteem varied as a function of both the sex role measure and the type of self-esteem measure used in the studies.
Exploring gender identity and community among three groups of transgender individuals in the United States: MTFs, FTMs, and genderqueers
Abstract A United States sample of 166 transgender adults including 50 male-to-females (MTFs), 52 female-to-males (FTMs), and 64 genderqueers (neither completely female nor completely male), were
Sex-role orientation and psychological well-being: Two meta-analyses
Research on the relationship between sex-role orientation and psychological well-being has been guided by one of three models. The traditional congruence model holds that psychological well-being