PURPOSE To investigate rates of strabismus surgery and population projections in the United States and to consider whether a sufficient number of pediatric ophthalmologists are being trained to meet future needs. METHODS Review of online data from Series 13 reports from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period 1965 to 1996, including reports from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery. Population data were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. RESULTS The current rate of strabismus surgery for children under 15 years of age is 80 per 100,000 persons in the United States. This rate would generate an additional 389 strabismus cases annually, based on the predicted growth of the pediatric population. On average, today's pediatric ophthalmologist performs about 114 strabismus procedures annually. CONCLUSIONS If the current rates and trends remain stable over the coming years, it is not likely that there will be a shortage of pediatric ophthalmologists in the United States.