OBJECTIVE:To examine the effect of insurance status on method of delivery while controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of women delivering at a single medical center.STUDY DESIGN:Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 878 women, who delivered their infants between 1985 and 1991 at a university hospital, were analyzed. Women were included if their previous infant was delivered by cesarean section and if the current pregnancy was ≥37 weeks’ gestation at nonemergent delivery with insurance status clearly specified. The outcome of interest was the rate of successful vaginal births after cesarean (VBAC) delivery by insurance status.RESULTS:The trial of labor rate for the cohort, defined as the rate of VBAC or cesarean deliveries following labor, was 55%; 61% were vaginal deliveries. Significant differences with regard to insurance status and several maternal factors were noted between trial of labor and cesarean section–no labor groups. After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the Medicaid/indigent group was more likely than the privately insured group to undergo a trial of labor (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.4). Of women who underwent a trial of labor, after controlling for other characteristics, the Medicaid/indigent group was more likely than the privately insured group to deliver vaginally (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.2).CONCLUSION:After controlling for other covariables, women with a history of a prior cesarean section with Medicaid/indigent insurance were more likely than privately insured women to attempt a trial of labor, and subsequently, to deliver vaginally, given that a trial of labor was attempted.