We studied twelve men and six women with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) and twelve healthy men at intervals of 6 months to 5 years. In the male DAT patients, mean CT rates of enlargement of third ventricle and of total lateral ventricular volumes differed significantly from zero and exceeded respective control values (p less than 0.05). The rate of neuropsychological decline correlated with rates of enlargement of the third ventricle or right lateral ventricle. Women with DAT also had significant rates of enlargement of the third and total lateral ventricles. The rate of lateral ventricular dilatation discriminated DAT patients from controls.