Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Inhibitors: Rationale and Importance to Inhibiting These Pathways in Human Health

@inproceedings{Chappell2011RasRafMEKERKAP,
  title={Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR Inhibitors: Rationale and Importance to Inhibiting These Pathways in Human Health},
  author={William Harvey Chappell and Linda S. Steelman and Jacquelyn M. Long and Ruth C. Kempf and Stephen L. Abrams and Richard A. Franklin and Joerg Baesecke and Franca Stivala and Marco Donia and Paolo Fagone and Graziella Malaponte and Maria Clorinda Mazzarino and Ferdinando Nicoletti and Massimo Libra and Danijela Maksimovi{\'c}-Ivani{\'c} and Sanja Mijatovi{\'c} and Giuseppe Montalto and Melchiorre Cervello and Piotr M. Laidler and Michele Milella and Agostino Tafuri and Attilio Bonati and Camilla Evangelisti and Lucio Cocco and Alberto M Martelli and James A McCubrey},
  booktitle={Oncotarget},
  year={2011}
}
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Integral components of these pathways, Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, and PTEN are also activated/inactivated by mutations. These pathways have profound effects on proliferative, apoptotic and differentiation pathways. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to chemotherapeutic drug resistance, proliferation of cancer initiating cells… CONTINUE READING
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