Rapid genetic deterioration in captive populations: Causes and conservation implications

  title={Rapid genetic deterioration in captive populations: Causes and conservation implications},
  author={Lynn M. Woodworth and Margaret E. Montgomery and David A. Briscoe and Richard Frankham},
  journal={Conservation Genetics},
Many species require captive breeding to ensuretheir survival. The eventual aim of suchprograms is usually to reintroduce the speciesinto the wild. Populations in captivitydeteriorate due to inbreeding depression, lossof genetic diversity, accumulation of newdeleterious mutations and genetic adaptationsto captivity that are deleterious in the wild.However, there is little evidence on themagnitude of these problems. We evaluatedchanges in reproductive fitness in populationsof Drosophila… 

Dynamics of genetic adaptation to captivity

Large captive populations of Drosophilamelanogaster were assessed for relative fitness under captive conditions for up to 87 generations in captivity, and it was found that very large genetic adaptations to captivity mayoccur under relatively benign captiveconditions.

Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species

To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, SNPs in populations of white-footed mice were used to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity and genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness.

Captive breeding genetics and reintroduction success

Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programs

Surprisingly, equalization of family sizes reduces the rate of genetic adaptation, but not the deleterious impacts upon reintroduced populations, as predicted by quantitative genetic theory.

The Guppy as a Conservation Model: Implications of Parasitism and Inbreeding for Reintroduction Success

Captive‐bred guppies were extremely susceptible to gyrodactylid parasites compared with their wild counterparts and a reduced level of immunogenetic variation due to inbreeding and lack of exposure to natural parasites may have rendered captive‐bred individuals more prone to infectious disease.

The efficiency of close inbreeding to reduce genetic adaptation to captivity

This work used quantitative genetic individual-based simulations to model the effect of genetic management on the evolution of a quantitative trait and the associated fitness of wild-born individuals that are brought to captivity and found that half-sib mating is more effective in reducing genetic adaptation to captivity than the gc/mc method.

Effective population sizes and adaptive genetic variation in a captive bird population

This study assessed effective population sizes and genetic variation at both neutral microsatellite markers, as well as SNP variants from the MHC-B locus of a captive Red Junglefowl population, which represents a rare instance of a population with a well-documented history in captivity.

Decreasing genetic diversity in wild and captive populations of endangered Itasenpara bittering (Acheilognathus longipinnis) in the Himi region, central Japan, and recommendations for conservation

Captive populations derived from the Busshouji River population demonstrated significant genetic divergence even among intrapopulational cohorts, suggesting the influence of genetic drift caused by geographic isolation and small population size.

Captive breeding and reintroduction of the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni: a genetic analysis using microsatellites

The application of widely recommended management practices, such as the registration of crosses between individuals in proper stud books and the introduction of new individuals into the genetic pools, has proven satisfactory to maintain high levels of genetic variation, and the high rates of hatching failure occasionally documented in captivity can be attributed to depressed genetic variation.



Does equalization of family sizes reduce genetic adaptation to captivity?

Questions are raised about the ability of equalization of family sizes to reduce genetic deterioration that adversely affects reintroduction success for captive populations of endangered species.

Modeling problems in conservation genetics using captive Drosophila populations: Rapid genetic adaptation to captivity

A framework for predicting the impact of factors on the rate of genetic adaptation to captivity is suggested and introduction of genes from the wild, increasing the generation interval, using captive environments close to those in the wild and achieving low mortality rates are all expected to slow genetic adaptations to captivity.

Delay of Adaptation to Captive Breeding by Equalizing Family Size

Most recommendations on the genetic management of captive populations have been concerned with the effects of genetic drift, and the size of an ideal population that has the same rate of increase in homozygosity or gene-frequency drift as the actual population under investigation is estimated.

Single large or several small? Population fragmentation in the captive management of endangered species

It is recommended that endangered species in captivity be maintained as several small populations, with occasional exchange of genetic material, which has genetic benefits over current management both in captivity and especially for reintroductions, as well as reducing translocation costs and risks of disease transfer.

Importance of Genetic Variation to the Viability of Mammalian Populations

  • R. Lacy
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 1997
Small populations lose genetic variability because of genetic drift, and inbreeding within populations can further decrease individual variability, and genetic threats to population viability will be expressed through their effects on and interactions with demographic and ecological processes.

Modeling Problems in Conservation Genetics Using Captive Drosophila Populations: Consequences of Equalization of Family Sizes

Equalization of family sizes can be unequivocally recommended for use in the genetic management of captive populations and estimates of Ne for equalization were greater than those for random choice.

Minimizing kinship in captive breeding programs

Minimizing kinship (MK), predicted to maximize the retention of gene diversity in pedigreed populations with unequal founder representation, is currently the best available for the genetic management of captive populations.

Genetic adaptation to captivity and inbreeding depression in small laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

The maintenance of captive populations under noncompetitive conditions can therefore be expected to minimize adaptive changes due to natural selection in the changed environment.

Relationships between population size and loss of genetic diversity: comparisons of experimental results with theoretical predictions

The results support the use of neutral theory to guide conservation actions, such as the genetic management of endangered species in captivity, and loss ofallozyme heterozygosity over generations 0–24, 0–49 and25–49 did not differ from the predictions of neutral Theory.

Is Mutation Accumulation a Threat to the Survival of Endangered Populations?

The accumulation of detrimental mutations does not appear to pose a significant threat to finite sexual populations with effective sizes of 25 or more over the 100–200 year time frames considered in most wildlife conservation programs.