Rapid evolution drives ecological dynamics in a predator–prey system

  title={Rapid evolution drives ecological dynamics in a predator–prey system},
  author={Takehito Yoshida and Laura E. Jones and Stephen P. Ellner and Gregor F. Fussmann and Nelson G. Hairston},
Ecological and evolutionary dynamics can occur on similar timescales. However, theoretical predictions of how rapid evolution can affect ecological dynamics are inconclusive and often depend on untested model assumptions. Here we report that rapid prey evolution in response to oscillating predator density affects predator–prey (rotifer–algal) cycles in laboratory microcosms. Our experiments tested explicit predictions from a model for our system that allows prey evolution. We verified the… 
Effects of rapid prey evolution on predator–prey cycles
The effects of rapid prey evolution are robust and general, and furthermore that they occur in a specific but biologically relevant region of parameter space: when traits that greatly reduce predation risk are relatively cheap, when there is coexistence between the two prey types and the predator, and when the interaction between predators and undefended prey alone would produce cycles.
Rapid prey evolution and the dynamics of two-predator food webs
This work asks whether rapid evolution of traits conferring defense against predation can radically change the qualitative dynamics of a predator–prey food chain, and whether the greater complexity of the ecological interactions will mask any potential impacts of rapid evolution.
Evolution in interacting species alters predator life-history traits, behaviour and morphology in experimental microbial communities
Investigating changes in predator traits after approximately 600 generations in a predator–prey (ciliate–bacteria) evolutionary experiment shows that in (co)evolving systems, predator adaptation can occur in traits relevant to foraging efficiency without translating into an increased ability of the predator to grow on the ancestral prey type.
How the Magnitude of Prey Genetic Variation Alters Predator-Prey Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics
This study uses linear stability analysis to decompose the stability of a general eco-evolutionary predator-prey model into components representing the stabilities of the ecological and evolutionary subsystems as well as the interactions between those subsystems.
The stabilizing effects of genetic diversity on predator-prey dynamics
Light is shed on the adaptive value of colony formation and the general view that genetic diversity and intraspecific trait variation of prey can play a vital role in the short-term dynamics and stability of planktonic predator-prey systems is supported.
Coevolution alters predator life history traits, behavior and morphology in experimental microbial communities
Investigating changes in predator traits after ~600 generations in a predator-prey (ciliate-bacteria) coevolutionary experiment shows that in coevolving systems, predator adaptation can occur in traits relevant to offense level without translating into an increased ability of the predator to grow on the ancestral prey type.
Evolution of prey in ecological time reduces the effect size of predators in experimental microcosms.
The results suggest that in either situation, the resulting evolutionary patterns may lead to dramatic and important changes in ecological effect size, and this work found that the presence of predators corresponded with evolution of smaller cell size and increased population growth rate.
Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics: The Predator-Prey Adaptive Play and the Ecological Theater
It is believed that studying predator-prey interactions under an eco-evolutionary lens can provide insights into how general and, consequently, predictable species' evolutionary responses are to their contemporary environments.
Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator–prey system
The rate of evolution of a defence trait was significantly lower in fluctuating environments compared with stable environments, and that the defence trait evolved to lower levels when two environmental stressors changed recurrently, which suggests that top-down and bottom-up changes can have additive effects constraining evolutionary response within populations.


The Evolution of Predator-Prey Interactions: Theory and Evidence
▪ Abstract Recent theories regarding the evolution of predator-prey interactions is reviewed. This includes theory about the dynamics and stability of both populations and traits, as well as theory
Predator–prey cycles in an aquatic microcosm: testing hypotheses of mechanism
A simple mechanistic model to explore predator–prey dynamics of a rotifer species feeding on green algae accurately predicted qualitative behaviour of the system, but poorly described features of population cycles such as the period and predator-prey phase relationship.
Crossing the hopf bifurcation in a live predator-prey system.
The dynamical behavior of a two-species aquatic laboratory community encompassing the interactions between a demographically structured herbivore population, a primary producer, and a mineral resource, yet still amenable to description and parameterization using a mathematical model is studied.
Large-amplitude cycles of Daphnia and its algal prey in enriched environments
Inedible algae in nutrient-rich lakes suppress cycles by reducing nutrients available to edible algae by a mechanism that flips the system between two states of stable equilibrium and large-amplitude cycle.
THE EVOLUTIONARY INTERACTION AMONG SPECIES: Selection, Escalation, and Coevolution
Although models describing the evolutionary effects organisms have on each other have provided valuable insights and have forced some modifications in the hypotheses of escalation, studies seeking to distinguish between escalation and coevolution will require empirical observations and cost-benefit evaluations of the discrete events of interaction that collectively constitute organism-caused selection.
Lake ecosystems: Rapid evolution revealed by dormant eggs
It is shown that the mean resistance of Daphnia genotypes to dietary cyanobacteria increased significantly during this eutrophication of Lake Constance, which has implications for the ways that ecosystems respond to nutrient enrichment through the impact of grazers on primary production.
The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses
  • C. Harvell
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1990
An integrated approach to studying inducible defenses would combine mechanistic estimates of costs, population-level estimates of defense effectiveness, and genetic estimates of correlations between fitness and inducibles characters to estimate rates of evolution in phenotypically plastic threshold characters.
Linking genetic change to community evolution: insights from studies of bacteria and bacteriophage
This article focuses on the ecology and evolution of bacteriophage-resistance as a case study demonstrating the relationship between specific genes, individual interactions, population dynamics, community structure, and evolutionary change.
This paper quantifies hypotheses by writing mathematical models that embody the interactions and forces that might cause cycles of population cycles, using both long-term population time series and the often-rich observational and experimental data on the ecology of the species in question.
Density cycles and an offspring quantity and quality game driven by natural selection
The first example of a genetic r versus K selection game that promotes stable population cycles in lizards is reported, and intrinsic causes of frequency- and density-dependent selection promotes an evolutionary game with two-generation oscillations.