Bimetallic oxide CuFeO2 as a new heterogeneous catalyst has shown much higher catalytic ability for activating peroxide than single-metal oxides. The present work demonstrated a synergistic microwave (MW) enhanced Fenton-like process with CuFeO2 for rapid decolorization of azo dye Orange G (OG). The MW irradiation dramatically enhanced the OG degradation efficiency, achieving 99.9% decolorization within 15min at pH5. The XRD analysis of reused CuFeO2, together with metal leaching tests, indicated merits of recycling for CuFeO2. The subsequent surface element analysis by XPS for fresh and used CuFeO2 showed a complex network for reactions between copper-iron redox pairs and surface hydroxyl groups, leading to a synergistic Fenton-like system accelerated by MW irradiation. In the CuFeO2 initiated Fenton-like reactions, several oxidant species (i.e., OH, O2-, electron hole, and FeIVO) responsible to the OG oxidation were identified by quenching experiments, showing the MW generated high temperature and "hot spots" enhanced the yield of OH by generation of electron-hole pairs. Further, the 26 detected degradation products confirmed the OH dominant oxidation of OG. This study shows that the MW-enhanced Fenton-like reaction using CuFeO2 has potential applications for rapid decolorization of dye effluent.