Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction

  title={Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction},
  author={R. Dale Guthrie},
About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch1. The causes of this extinction—the role of humans versus that of climate—have been the focus of much controversy1,2,3,4,5,6. Horses have figured centrally in that debate, because equid species dominated North American late Pleistocene faunas in terms of abundance, geographical distribution, and species variety, yet none survived into the Holocene epoch. The timing of these equid regional extinctions… 

Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

Eurasian large mammal dynamics in response to changing environments during the Late Neogene

Short and long term environmental changes, variations in climate and vegetation during the late Neogene shaped the geographical ranges of large terrestrial mammals by allowing origination,

Climate change, not human population growth, correlates with Late Quaternary megafauna declines in North America

Radiocarbon-dated Event-Count (REC) Modelling is employed to test whether declines in North American megafauna species could be best explained by climate changes, increases in human population densities, or both, using the largest available database ofmegafauna and human radiocarbon dates.

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Spatio-temporal variation in the preservation of ancient faunal remains

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Megafaunal isotopes reveal role of increased moisture on rangeland during late Pleistocene extinctions

Moisture-driven environmental changes appear to have played an important part in the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions through alteration of environments such as rangelands, which supported a large biomass of specialist grazers.

Lions and brown bears colonized North America in multiple synchronous waves of dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge

Stark synchronicity is revealed in the population dynamics of Beringian lions and brown bears, with multiple waves of dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge coinciding with glacial periods of low sea levels, as well as synchronous local extinctions in Eastern Beringia during Marine Isotope Stage 3.

Revisiting Paleoindian exploitation of extinct North American mammals

The record of Cenozoic horses in Mexico: current knowledge and palaeobiological implications

The Mexican record shows that a considerable portion of the evolutionary history of horses occurred in Mexico, and including the Mexican specimens in studies using biogeographical, evolutionary and ecological approaches will considerably improve the knowledge of horses in southern North America.