Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium.

@article{Liu2008RapidAO,
  title={Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium.},
  author={Zhiwei Liu and Xinyuan Yu and Zahir A. Shaikh},
  journal={Toxicology and applied pharmacology},
  year={2008},
  volume={228 3},
  pages={286-94}
}
Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17 beta-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER alpha, ER beta and GPR30, to 0.5… CONTINUE READING

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