Rapid, on-site HIV testing with same-day results may improve services and increase the number of clients who learn their serostatus in developing countries. To validate test performance under field conditions and assess the change in the proportion of clients who learn their serostatus, we conducted a field trial using the Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2 assay (Cambridge Diagnostics) at the AIDS Information Centre counselling and testing sites in Uganda. Compared to the standard 2-EIA testing algorithm, the sensitivity of Capillus was 99.6% (95% CI; 98.5%, 99.9%), the specificity was 98.8% (95% CI; 98.1%, 99.3%), the positive predictive value was 96.5% (95% CI; 94.5%, 97.8%), and the negative predictive value was 99.9% (95% CI; 99.5%, 100%). It took less than 5 min to perform a single test, and results were returned to clients in less than an hour, during which time clients were counselled. This resulted in a 27% increase in the proportion of clients who learned their serostatus and received counselling. We conclude that simple, rapid HIV tests can be performed accurately on-site within the time frame of a clinic visit, increasing the number of clients who learn their serostatus and receive post-test counselling.