Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Taps a Mechanism That Places Constraints on the Development of Early Reading Fluency

  title={Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) Taps a Mechanism That Places Constraints on the Development of Early Reading Fluency},
  author={Arne Lerv{\aa}g and Charles Hulme},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={1040 - 1048}
Previous studies have shown that rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a correlate of early reading skills; however, the interpretation of this finding remains controversial. We present the results from a 3-year longitudinal study. RAN, measured with nonalphabetic stimuli before reading instruction has begun, is a predictor of later growth in reading fluency. After reading instruction has started, RAN continues to exert an influence on the development of reading fluency over the next 2 years… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Unraveling the links between rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological awareness, and reading.

It is well established that phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks reliably predict children’s developing word reading abilities, across a wide range of languages.

RAN Backward: A Test of the Visual Scanning Hypothesis

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is strongly correlated with reading fluency. A substantial part of this correlation is ascribed to the serial nature of the task. In this study, we tested the

Rapid Automatized Naming and Its Unique Contribution to Reading: Evidence from Chinese Dyslexia

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is suggested to be a significant predictor of reading. However, how it is related to reading and whether it contributes uniquely to reading with phonological awareness

What discrete and serial rapid automatized naming can reveal about reading

The results showed that in second- and fourth-grade readers similar formats of RAN and reading were more strongly related than dissimilar formats, however, in first- grade readers serial RAN was more stronglyrelated to reading than discrete RAN, irrespective of the format of the reading measure.

What Discrete and Serial Rapid Automatized Naming Can Reveal About Reading

Serial rapid automized naming (RAN) has been often found to correlate more strongly with reading than discrete RAN. This study aimed to demonstrate that the strength of the RAN–reading fluency

Component processes subserving rapid automatized naming in dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers.

Results demonstrated that impaired RAN performance in dyslexic readers mainly stem from enhanced inter-item pause times and not from difficulties at the level of post-access motor production (expressed as articulation rates), and suggests that non-phonological factors may lie at the root of the association between RAN inter- item pauses and reading ability.

Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) as a Kindergarten Predictor of Future Reading in English: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis

Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been shown to be a strong correlate of reading abilities. RAN also predicts future reading across different ages, ability levels, and languages, and is often used

Visual search for upright bigrams predicts reading fluency in children

It is proposed that bigram processing during visual search could complement existing measures of language processing to understand individual differences in reading fluency.



Rapid automatic naming: Easy to measure, hard to improve (quickly)

It might be difficult to quickly improve the serial rapid naming of letter sounds in beginning readers, because the relationship of reading with letter-sound naming was higher than its relationship with number naming.

The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: a Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study.

The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 228 Norwegian children, finding letter knowledge, phoneme manipulation, and RAN were independent longitudinal predictors of early reading (word recognition) skills in the regular Norwegian orthography.

Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up.

In a longitudinal study, development of word reading fluency and spelling were followed for almost 8 years. In a group of 115 students (65 girls, 50 boys) acquiring the phonologically transparent

Measures of information processing in rapid automatized naming (RAN) and their relation to reading.

Analysis supported the view that reading is predicted by speed of processing associated with letters, not general processing speed, and the RAN letters pause time was the most robust predictor of decoding and reading comprehension.

The double-deficit hypothesis and difficulties in learning to read a regular orthography.

In 2 large longitudinal studies, we selected 3 subgroups of German-speaking children (phonological awareness deficit, naming-speed deficit, double deficit) at the beginning of school and assessed

Modeling the Relationship between Growth in Rapid Naming Speed and Growth in Decoding Skill in First-Grade Children.

This study used an extant longitudinal correlational data set (D. L. Compton, 2000) to model the relationship between growth in decoding skill and growth in rapid automatized naming (RAN) in

Specific contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition: Results from a Dutch latent variable longitudinal study

Contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition were examined in a longitudinal study of 166 Dutch children from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Various phonological abilities,

The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias.

The authors propose an alternative conceptualization of the developmental dyslexias, the double-deficit hypothesis (i.e., phonological deficits and processes underlying naming-speed deficits

How reading differs from object naming at the neuronal level

The visual word form area: spatial and temporal characterization of an initial stage of reading in normal subjects and posterior split-brain patients.

The findings provide direct support for the main components of the classical model of reading and help specify their timing and cerebral substrates.