# Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem

@article{Pironio2010RandomNC, title={Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem}, author={Stefano Pironio and Antonio Ac{\'i}n and Serge Massar and Antoine Boyer de la Giroday and Dzmitry Matsukevich and Peter Maunz and Steven Matthew Olmschenk and David Hayes and Le Luo and T. Andrew Manning and Christopher R. Monroe}, journal={Nature}, year={2010}, volume={464}, pages={1021-1024} }

Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number…

## 1,033 Citations

Security of practical private randomness generation

- Computer Science
- 2013

It is pointed out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary.

Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals

- Computer ScienceNature
- 2018

1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10−12 and unpredictable assuming the impossibility of superluminal communication are generated and certified using a loophole-free Bell test and a protocol is described that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities.

Device-independent randomness generation from several Bell estimators

- Computer Science
- 2016

Protocols for device-independent randomness generation, secure against classical side information, that rely on the estimation of an arbitrary number of Bell expressions or even directly on the experimental frequencies of measurement outcomes are introduced.

Device-independent quantum random-number generation

- Computer Science, PhysicsNature
- 2018

Genuine, unpredictable quantum random-number generation that is provably secure against quantum and classical adversaries is demonstrated, certified by the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality.

Private random number generation through remote atom entanglement

- Computer Science2011 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series
- 2011

The non-local correlations between entangled quantum systems can be used to verify the generation of true random numbers, and this insight enables the construction of a private random number generator whose output can be verified as random through the violation of a Bell inequality.

Continuous Variable Optimisation of Quantum Randomness and Probabilistic Linear Amplification

- Computer Science
- 2018

This thesis presents the optimisation of experimental parameters for secure randomness generation and proposes a non-deterministic approach to enhance amplification of CV quantum state and concerns the improvement in the transmission of a quantum state.

Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

- Computer ScienceNature communications
- 2016

This work provides an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary.

Experimental quantum randomness generation invulnerable to the detection loophole

- Computer Science
- 2014

A novel protocol for quantum private randomness generation that makes no assumption on the functioning of the devices and works even with very low detection efficiency, paving the way towards a second generation of more secure practical QRNGs.

True randomness from realistic quantum devices

- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2013

Here this work provides a framework to analyse realistic QRNGs and to determine the post-processing that is necessary to turn their raw output into true randomness.

Quantum Random Numbers : Certification and Generation

- Computer Science
- 2011

It is shown that sequences of quantum random bits are incomputable in the strongest sense: no bit can be provably computed in advance, and ε-randomness (and thus incomputability) is, in general, not.

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