# Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem

@article{Pironio2010RandomNC, title={Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem}, author={S. Pironio and A. Ac{\'i}n and S. Massar and A. B. D. L. Giroday and D. Matsukevich and P. Maunz and S. Olmschenk and D. Hayes and L. Luo and T. Manning and C. Monroe}, journal={Nature}, year={2010}, volume={464}, pages={1021-1024} }

Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number… Expand

#### 922 Citations

Security of practical private randomness generation

- Physics
- 2013

Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property can be used to generate certified randomness… Expand

Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals

- Physics, Computer Science
- Nature
- 2018

1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10−12 and unpredictable assuming the impossibility of superluminal communication are generated and certified using a loophole-free Bell test and a protocol is described that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities. Expand

Device-independent randomness generation from several Bell estimators

- Mathematics, Physics
- 2016

Device-independent randomness generation and quantum key distribution protocols rely on a fundamental relation between the non-locality of quantum theory and its random character. This relation is… Expand

Device-independent quantum random-number generation

- Computer Science, Medicine
- Nature
- 2018

Genuine, unpredictable quantum random-number generation that is provably secure against quantum and classical adversaries is demonstrated, certified by the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality. Expand

Private random number generation through remote atom entanglement

- Computer Science
- 2011 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series
- 2011

The non-local correlations between entangled quantum systems can be used to verify the generation of true random numbers, and this insight enables the construction of a private random number generator whose output can be verified as random through the violation of a Bell inequality. Expand

Continuous Variable Optimisation of Quantum Randomness and Probabilistic Linear Amplification

- Physics
- 2018

In the past decade, quantum communication protocols based on continuous variables (CV) has seen considerable development in both theoretical and experimental aspects. Nonetheless, challenges remain… Expand

Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

- Computer Science, Medicine
- Nature communications
- 2016

This work provides an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. Expand

Experimental quantum randomness generation invulnerable to the detection loophole

- Physics, Mathematics
- 2014

Random numbers are essential for multiple applications, including cryptography, financial security, digital rights management and scientific simulations. However, producing random numbers from a… Expand

True randomness from realistic quantum devices

- Mathematics, Physics
- ArXiv
- 2013

Here this work provides a framework to analyse realistic QRNGs and to determine the post-processing that is necessary to turn their raw output into true randomness. Expand

Quantum Random Numbers : Certification and Generation

- 2011

In this thesis we study the generation of randomness from quantum mechanical sources: quantum random number generators (QRNGs). Such devices are thought to provide a better quality of randomness than… Expand

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