Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem

  title={Random numbers certified by Bell’s theorem},
  author={Stefano Pironio and Antonio Ac{\'i}n and Serge Massar and Antoine Boyer de la Giroday and Dzmitry Matsukevich and Peter Maunz and Steven Matthew Olmschenk and David Hayes and Le Luo and T. Andrew Manning and Christopher R. Monroe},
Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number… 
Security of practical private randomness generation
It is pointed out that in most real, practical situations, where the concept of device independence is used as a protection against unintentional flaws or failures of the quantum apparatuses, it is sufficient to show that the generated string is random with respect to an adversary that holds only classical side information; i.e., proving randomness against quantum side information is not necessary.
Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals
1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10−12 and unpredictable assuming the impossibility of superluminal communication are generated and certified using a loophole-free Bell test and a protocol is described that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities.
Device-independent randomness generation from several Bell estimators
Protocols for device-independent randomness generation, secure against classical side information, that rely on the estimation of an arbitrary number of Bell expressions or even directly on the experimental frequencies of measurement outcomes are introduced.
Device-independent quantum random-number generation
Genuine, unpredictable quantum random-number generation that is provably secure against quantum and classical adversaries is demonstrated, certified by the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality.
Private random number generation through remote atom entanglement
The non-local correlations between entangled quantum systems can be used to verify the generation of true random numbers, and this insight enables the construction of a private random number generator whose output can be verified as random through the violation of a Bell inequality.
Continuous Variable Optimisation of Quantum Randomness and Probabilistic Linear Amplification
This thesis presents the optimisation of experimental parameters for secure randomness generation and proposes a non-deterministic approach to enhance amplification of CV quantum state and concerns the improvement in the transmission of a quantum state.
Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices
This work provides an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary.
Experimental quantum randomness generation invulnerable to the detection loophole
A novel protocol for quantum private randomness generation that makes no assumption on the functioning of the devices and works even with very low detection efficiency, paving the way towards a second generation of more secure practical QRNGs.
True randomness from realistic quantum devices
Here this work provides a framework to analyse realistic QRNGs and to determine the post-processing that is necessary to turn their raw output into true randomness.
Quantum Random Numbers : Certification and Generation
It is shown that sequences of quantum random bits are incomputable in the strongest sense: no bit can be provably computed in advance, and ε-randomness (and thus incomputability) is, in general, not.


Quantum Cryptography Based Solely on Bell's Theorem
A new protocol is introduced which is efficient in terms of both classical and quantum communication, and that can tolerate noise in the quantum channel, and it is proved that it offers device-independent security under the sole assumption that certain non-signaling conditions are satisfied.
Quantum cryptography with imperfect apparatus
  • D. Mayers, A. Yao
  • Mathematics
    Proceedings 39th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Cat. No.98CB36280)
  • 1998
This paper proposes and gives a concrete design for a new concept, self-checking source, which requires the manufacturer of the photon source to provide certain tests; these tests are designed such that, if passed, the source is guaranteed to be adequate for the security of the quantum key distribution protocol, even though the testing devices may not be built to the original specification.
Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks
This proof exploits the full structure of quantum theory, but only holds against collective attacks, where the eavesdropper is assumed to act on the quantum systems of the honest parties independently and identically in each round of the protocol.
No signaling and quantum key distribution.
A key distribution scheme provably secure against general attacks by a postquantum eavesdropper limited only by the impossibility of superluminal signaling is described, which stems from violation of a Bell inequality.
Trevisan's Extractor in the Presence of Quantum Side Information
Here, it is shown that the well-known construction paradigm for extractors proposed by Trevisan is sound in the presence of quantum side information and exploited the modularity of this paradigm to give several concrete extractor constructions.
Quantum And Relativistic Protocols For Secure Multi-Party Computation
A new protocol for non-relativistic strong coin tossing is introduced, which matches the security of the best protocol known to date while using a conceptually different approach to achieve the task.
Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers
It is shown that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers, which means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.
Self-testing of Quantum Circuits
We prove that a quantum circuit together with measurement apparatuses and EPR sources can be self-tested, i.e. fully verified without any reference to some trusted set of quantum devices. To
Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum key distribution systems
This result shows that, contrary to popular belief, an eavesdropper, Eve, has a non-negligible probability $(\ensuremath{\sim}4%)$ to break the security of the system.
Security proof of quantum key distribution with detection efficiency mismatch
The physical origin of detection efficiency mismatch in various domains including spatial, spectral, and time domains and in various experimental set-ups is described and it is proved that by randomly switching the bit assignments of the detectors, the effect of Detection efficiency mismatch can be completely eliminated.