Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

Abstract

BACKGROUND There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. RESULTS We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.16801

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@inproceedings{Shadman2014RamadanMD, title={Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns}, author={Zhaleh Shadman and Nooshin Poorsoltan and Mahdieh Akhoundan and Bagher Larijani and Mozhdeh Soleymanzadeh and Camelia Akhgar Zhand and Zahra Alsadat Seyed Rohani and Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo}, booktitle={Iranian Red Crescent medical journal}, year={2014} }