Raloxifene: Risks and Benefits

  title={Raloxifene: Risks and Benefits},
  author={Elizabeth Barrett-Connor},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  • E. Barrett-Connor
  • Published 1 December 2001
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Abstract: Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), was designed to have the expected benefits of long‐term estrogen replacement therapy without the risks. This paper reviews the clinical trial evidence for raloxifene benefits and risks, and how they compare with those of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and relate to the choices of postmenopausal women. 
Selective estrogen receptor modulators: tissue actions and potential for CNS protection.
This review focuses on the CNS and known neuroprotective effects of two specific SERMs, raloxifenes and arzoxifene, and suggests that ralOXifene and arZoxIfene are neuroprot protective and may preserve some elements of cognitive function.
Prevention of hormone-related cancers: breast cancer.
  • B. DunnD. WickerhamL. Ford
  • Medicine, Biology
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  • 2005
Based on promising data involving reduction of contralateral breast cancer risk in adjuvant studies, several aromatase inhibitors are being incorporated into trials evaluating their efficacy as preventive agents in women at increased risk.
Oestrogen receptors and linear bone growth
It is concluded that SERMs potentially could offer new possibilities to modulate bone growth by specifically targeting different oestrogen receptors within the growth plate.
Hormonal interventions to prevent hormonal cancers: breast and prostate cancers
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  • Medicine
    European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation
  • 2007
In an effort to improve its benefit–risk profile, tamoxifen is now being compared with raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, which shows efficacy in breast cancer adjuvant trials.
Raloxifene acts as an estrogen agonist on the rabbit growth plate.
It is concluded that raloxifene acts as an estrogen agonist on the growth plate, accelerating growth plate senescence and thus hastening epiphyseal fusion.
[Estrogen intracrinology: therapy and chemoprevention of breast cancer].
Key enzymes in estrogen's biosynthesis in the breast and their potential use in therapy and chemoprevention of breast carcinoma are discussed.
Breast cancer and post-menopausal hormone therapy.
  • P. KenemansA. Bosman
  • Medicine, Biology
    Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • 2003


Effects of raloxifene on serum lipids and coagulation factors in healthy postmenopausal women.
Raloxifene favorably alters biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk by decreasing LDL-C, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein(a), and by increasing HDL2-C without raising triglycerides.
Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in healthy postmenopausal women: A 2-year, placebo-controlled study.
It is suggested that in healthy postmenopausal women, raloxifene and estrogen monotherapy have similar beneficial effects on low density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen levels.
The Effect of Raloxifene on Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the MORE Randomized Trial
Tamoxifen citrate, which inhibits the action of estrogen on breast tissue, improves disease-free survival among women who have estrogen receptor, and raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has antiestrogenic effects on breast and endometrial tissue and estrogenIC effects on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting.
The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation.
Among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the risk of invasive breast cancer was decreased by 76% during 3 years of treatment with raloxifene, mainly in the United States and Europe.
Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Endometrial Histology in Postmenopausal Women: The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial
Combining CEE with cyclic or continuous MPA or cyclic MP protected the endometrium from hyperplastic changes associated with estrogen-only therapy.
Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women.
Daily therapy with raloxifene increases bone mineral density, lowers serum concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and does not stimulate the endometrium.
The effects of hormone replacement therapy and raloxifene on C-reactive protein and homocysteine in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial.
HRT and raloxifene lower serum homocysteine levels to a comparable extent in postmenopausal women, and the relationship between elevated C-reactive protein levels with HRT and cardiovascular disease events requires further study.
Randomized Trial of Estrogen Plus Progestin for Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women
Treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary disease, and the treatment did increase the rate of thromboembolic events and gallbladder disease.