Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface

  title={Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface},
  author={Martin George Tomasko and Brent A. Archinal and T. L. Becker and Bruno B{\'e}zard and M. Bushroe and Michel Combes and Debbie Cook and Athena Coustenis and Catherine de Bergh and L. E. Dafoe and Lyn Doose and Sylvain Dout{\'e} and Andrew M. Eibl and S. Engel and Fritz Gliem and Bjoern Grieger and K. Holso and Elpitha Howington-Kraus and Erich Karkoschka and H. Uwe Keller and Randolf L. Kirk and Rainer Kramm and Michael K{\"u}ppers and Peter Lanagan and Emmanuel Lellouch and Mark T. Lemmon and J. L. Lunine and Elisabeth Ann McFarlane and John E. Moores and G. M. Prout and Bashar Rizk and Mark R. Rosiek and P. Rueffer and Stefan E. Schr{\"o}der and Bernard Schmitt and Charles See and P. H. Smith and Laurence A. Soderblom and Nicolas Thomas and Robert Mac West},
The irreversible conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons in Titan's stratosphere implies a surface or subsurface methane reservoir. Recent measurements from the cameras aboard the Cassini orbiter fail to see a global reservoir, but the methane and smog in Titan's atmosphere impedes the search for hydrocarbons on the surface. Here we report spectra and high-resolution images obtained by the Huygens Probe Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer instrument in Titan's atmosphere. Although these… 
Composition of Titan's Surface
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The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe
Direct atmospheric measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS), including altitude profiles of the constituents, isotopic ratios and trace species (including organic compounds), were reported, confirming the primary constituents were confirmed to be nitrogen and methane.
A physical model of Titan's aerosols.
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A high resolution vertical profile of Titan's winds is reported, with an estimated accuracy of better than 1 m s-1, providing in situ confirmation of superrotation on Titan.
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The temperature and density profiles, as determined by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI), from an altitude of 1,400 km down to the surface were higher than expected and the extent of atmospheric electricity was also hitherto unknown.
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Abstract Full-disk albedo spectra of the jovian planets and Titan were derived from observations at the European Southern Observatory in July 1995. The spectra extend from 300 to 1050 nm wavelength.
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