Radioprotection by glutathione esters and cysteamine in normal and glutathione-depleted mammalian cells.

@article{Vos1988RadioprotectionBG,
  title={Radioprotection by glutathione esters and cysteamine in normal and glutathione-depleted mammalian cells.},
  author={O. Vos and W S Roos-Verhey},
  journal={International journal of radiation biology and related studies in physics, chemistry, and medicine},
  year={1988},
  volume={53 2},
  pages={
          273-81
        }
}
  • O. Vos, W. S. Roos-Verhey
  • Published 1988
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • International journal of radiation biology and related studies in physics, chemistry, and medicine
Monoethyl (MEE) and diethyl (DEE) esters of glutathione (GSH) had the capacity to provide some protection of normal and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pretreated cells against X-irradiation. Both compounds appeared to be transported through the cell membrane into the cells. MEE was intracellularly partly hydrolysed to GSH and caused a limited rise of intracellular GSH. DEE was intracellularly mainly converted into MEE and partly into GSH. DEE caused a larger rise of the intracellular GSH content… 

Influence of intracellular thiol and polyamine levels on radioprotection by aminothiols.

WR-1065 appeared to offset the radiosensitizing effect of the DFMO treatment, and Cysteamine, on the other hand, protected control and DFMO-treated cells to the same extent.

Role of endogenous thiols in protection.

  • O. Vos
  • Biology
    Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research
  • 1992

Failure of chronic glutathione elevation to reduce cytotoxicity produced by exposure to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), ionizing radiation, or hyperthermia.

The resulting dose-response curves indicated that chronic exposure to DEM, which resulted in chronic elevation of glutathione, did not provide protection against any of the three toxic treatments, and CHO/DEM cells are resistant to DEM and diamide cytotoxicity, compared to control CHO cells.

Comparative effect of the thiols dithiothreitol, cysteamine and WR-151326 on survival and on the induction of DNA damage in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to gamma-radiation.

All three thiols protected against ssb induction, although to a significantly lower extent than against cell killing measured under identical conditions, and each thiol also protected against dsb induction.

Menadione-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells have an increased capacity for glutathione synthesis.

It is concluded that the perturbation of GSH metabolism contributes to the resistant phenotype and is an important characteristic of menadione-resistant CHO cells.

Isozyme-specific glutathione S-transferase inhibitors potentiate drug sensitivity in cultured human tumor cell lines

Results indicate that cell-permeable analogs of GSH can potentiate cytotoxicity of common chemotherapeutic drugs and this effect has a strong positive correlation with the ability of the analogs to inhibit specific GST isozymes.

Amino acids and their derivatives as radioprotective agents

The study of amino acids and their derivatives as radioprotective agents continues to contribute to an understanding of processes involved in radiation toxicity and to offer new compounds with potential application to situations of human exposure.

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It is concluded that GSH is released from proteins by cysteamine treatment in an exchange reaction, suggesting that protein-bound GSH may be regarded as a reservoir of a radioprotective substance which can be released under certain conditions and, when released, can contribute to enhance the radioresistance of cells.

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The findings indicate that the monomethyl and monoethyl esters of glutathione are transported into cells and hydrolyzed to glutathion, and may provide a relatively safe method for protecting cells against damage by toxic compounds, oxygen, and radiation.

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SummaryThe radioprotective activity of a number of biological amines, disulphide compounds and thiols at various concentrations was tested in an in vitro system, based on the cloning technique