Radiographically detectable lumbar degenerative changes as risk indicators of back pain. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study of concrete reinforcement workers and house painters.


The association between radiographically detectable degenerative changes in the lumbar spine and back symptoms was studied, along with the possible effect of occupational work load. The subjects were 216 concrete reinforcement workers and 201 house painters. A questionnaire provided information on work history and earlier back accidents, and a standardized… (More)


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