Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island

  title={Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island},
  author={Russell D. Guthrie},
Island colonization and subsequent dwarfing of Pleistocene proboscideans is one of the more dramatic evolutionary and ecological occurrences, especially in situations where island populations survived end-Pleistocene extinctions whereas those on the nearby mainland did not. For example, Holocene mammoths have been dated from Wrangel Island in northern Russia. In most of these cases, few details are available about the dynamics of how island colonization and extinction occurred. As part of a… Expand

Figures and Topics from this paper

Phylogeographic analysis of the mid-Holocene Mammoth from Qagnaxˆ Cave, St. Paul Island, Alaska
Abstract Remains of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) were found in Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilof Islands, 500 km west of the Alaskan mainland in the BeringExpand
Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths (Mammuthus Primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia
Abstract We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of theExpand
Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska
Abstract Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox.Expand
Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska
Evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change, reinforcing 21st-century concerns about the vulnerability of island populations to future warming, freshwater availability, and sea level rise. Expand
Mammoths in the insular Nearctic? Some constraints on the existence of a Pleistocene megafaunal refugium in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Abstract Mammoth fossils recovered on Banks and Melville Islands in the western part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago have been used as a basis for inferring that these islands functioned as a LateExpand
Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands National Park, California, USA
Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (MarineExpand
Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth
It is shown that another spectacular megafaunal species, the giant deer or ‘Irish elk’, survived to around 6,900 radiocarbon yr bp (about 7,700 yr ago) in western Siberia—more than three millennia later than its previously accepted terminal date—and therefore, that the reasons for its ultimate demise are to be sought in Holocene not Pleistocene events. Expand
Sea ice expansion in the Bering Sea during the Neoglacial: evidence from archaeozoology
The Neoglacial was a period of cold that lasted more than 2000 years during the mid-Holocene, from approximately 4700 to 2500 years ago. Although proxy data from a number of sources document theExpand
Pattern of extinction of the woolly mammoth in Beringia
A new geo-referenced database of radiocarbon-dated evidence is used to show that mammoths were abundant in the open-habitat of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (∼45–30 ka), and suggests that humans may be best seen as a synergistic cofactor in that extirpation. Expand
Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival
Abstract Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, andExpand


Holocene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in the Siberian Arctic
The dwarfing of the Wrangel mammoths is interpreted as a result of the insularity effect, combined with a response to the general trend towards unfavourable environment in the Holocene. Expand
Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction
About 70% of North American large mammal species were lost at the end of the Pleistocene epoch1. The causes of this extinction—the role of humans versus that of climate—have been the focus of muchExpand
The Twilight of the Mammouth fauna in the Asiatic Arctic
Environmental changes related to climatic warming and sea-level rise seem to be the main reasons behind the disappearance of the mammoth fauna. Expand
Historical ecology in Beringia: The south land bridge coast at St. Paul Island
A 14-m core of lake sediments from St. Paul Island yields a long environmental history of the south coast of the Bering land bridge. Tritium assay demonstrates that sands in the bottom 8 m of depositExpand
Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska
  • T. Ager
  • Geology
  • Quaternary Research
  • 2003
Abstract Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge andExpand
Insularity and Its Effect on Mammal Evolution
When the car ferry “Rethymnon” sails from Piraeus towards Crete one can already feel the strong endemic atmosphere of the island. Rethymnon itself is a beautiful historical town on Crete in an areaExpand
Geophysical study of the East Pacific Rise 15°N-17°N : An unusually robust segment
Bathymetric, side-scan sonar, magnetic and gravity data from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 15° and 17°N are used to establish the spreading history and examine melt delivery to an unusuallyExpand
On the cause of the asymmetric distribution of seamounts about the Juan de Fuca ridge: ridge-crest migration over a heterogeneous asthenosphere
Abstract The distribution of non-hotspot seamounts in the northeast Pacific is highly asymmetric; small seamount chains and isolated edifices are numerous on the Pacific plate, but nearly absent onExpand
A three‐dimensional gravity analysis of the East Pacific Rise from 18° to 21°30′S
Multibeam bathymetry and gravity coverage of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) between 18 o and 21 o 30'S is used to investigate the relation between melt supply and tectonic segmentation at ultrafastExpand
Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America
This paper reviews the relative feasibility of interior and coastal routes for early man entering southern North America from Beringia during the late Pleistocene. Paleoenvironmental andExpand