Radiative forcing and climate response

  title={Radiative forcing and climate response},
  author={J. E. Hansen and Makiko Sato and Reto Ruedy},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
We examine the sensitivity of a climate model to a wide range of radiative forcings, including changes of solar irradiance, atmospheric CO2, O3, CFCs, clouds, aerosols, surface albedo, and a “ghost” forcing introduced at arbitrary heights, latitudes, longitudes, seasons, and times of day. We show that, in general, the climate response, specifically the global mean temperature change, is sensitive to the altitude, latitude, and nature of the forcing; that is, the response to a given forcing can… Expand
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