Radiation of X-rays using polarized LiNbO3 single crystal in low-pressure ambient gas.

Abstract

The dependence of X-ray intensity on the pressure and type of ambient gas was investigated for LiNbO(3) single crystals polarized in the c-axis direction at pressures of approximately 1 to 30 Pa. Ionization of surrounding gas molecules by the electric field generated by the crystal led to the production of both positive ions and free electrons. The electrons were accelerated toward a Cu target, radiating both white X-rays and X-rays specific to the crystal or target material by bremsstrahlung. The integrated X-ray intensity per cycle in the energy range 1 to 20 keV showed a local maximum value at a pressure P(max). The logarithm of P(max) was proportional to the Boltzmann factor using the first ionization energy of each ambient gas molecule. The value of P(max) was found to be independent of the electrical surface area of the crystal. The integrated X-ray intensity was approximated qualitatively by a quadratic function with pressure, which was upwardly convex. It was found that one of the causes of the reduction in X-ray intensity at pressures P > P(max) is the adsorption of positive ions generated by the ionization of gas molecules on the negative electric surface. It was also discovered that the lifetime of the X-ray radiation device could be improved when the X-ray radiation case was covered with another hermetically sealed decompression case. The gas with the smallest first ionization energy, with a partial pressure of P(max), was enclosed inside the X-ray radiation case (inner case) and the gas with the largest first ionization energy was enclosed at a suitable pressure between the inner and outer cases.

DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2009.1260

Cite this paper

@article{Fukao2009RadiationOX, title={Radiation of X-rays using polarized LiNbO3 single crystal in low-pressure ambient gas.}, author={Shinji Fukao and Yoshikazu Nakanishi and Tadahiro Mizoguchi and Yoshiaki Ito and Shinzo Yoshikado}, journal={IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control}, year={2009}, volume={56 9}, pages={1850-5} }