Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: related inflammatory-type responses to radiation-induced stress and injury? A review

  title={Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: related inflammatory-type responses to radiation-induced stress and injury? A review},
  author={Sally A. Lorimore and Eric G. Wright},
  journal={International Journal of Radiation Biology},
  pages={15 - 25}
Purpose : To review studies of radiation responses in the haemopoietic system in the context of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects and inflammatory-type processes. Results : There is considerable evidence that cells that themselves are not exposed to ionizing radiation but are the progeny of cells irradiated many cell divisions previously may express a high frequency of gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cell death. These effects are collectively known as… 

Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects: inter-related nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation

Radiation-induced genomic instability and untargeted bystander effects may reflect inter-related aspects of inflammatory-type responses to radiation-induced stress and injury and contribute to the variety of pathological consequences of radiation exposures.

Untargeted effects of ionizing radiation: implications for radiation pathology.

Manifestations and mechanisms of non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation.

The In Vivo Expression of Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability Has an Inflammatory Mechanism

The hypothesis that the radiation-induced chromosomal instability phenotype is not an intrinsic property of the cells but a consequence of inflammatory processes having the potential to contribute secondary damage expressed as nontargeted and delayed radiation effects is supported.

Is there a common mechanism underlying genomic instability, bystander effects and other nontargeted effects of exposure to ionizing radiation?

It is proposed that some as yet to be identified secreted factor can be produced by irradiated cells that can stimulate effects in nonirradiated cells (death-inducing and bystander effects, clastogenic factors) and perpetuate genomic instability in the clonally expanded progeny of an irradiated cell.

Responses to ionizing radiation mediated by inflammatory mechanisms

These new findings highlight the importance of tissue responses and indicate additional mechanisms of radiation action, including the likelihood that radiation effects are not restricted to the initiation stage of neoplastic diseases, but may also contribute to tumour promotion and progression.

Radiation-induced Chromosome Instability: The Role of Dose and Dose Rate

The investigations have demonstrated that normal primary human fibroblast cells are susceptible to the induction of early DNA damage and RIGI, not only after a high dose and high dose rate exposure to low linear energy transfer, but also following low dose, low dose rate exposures.

Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

It is argued that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic, but there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur.



Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage

The types of chromosomal rearrangements observed suggest that chromosome fusion, followed by bridge breakage and refusion, contributes to the observed delayed chromosomal instability, and a role for chromosome rearrangement in cytotoxicity is suggested.

Leukemia Cells and the Cytokine Network

  • S. MoqattashJ. Lutton
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
This review summarizes the actions and interactions of cytokines that are related to leukemic cell viability and growth and the use of cytokine as therapeutic agents is also discussed.

Cytokine function: a study in biologic diversity.

Because of their broad spectrum of activity, cytokines have been used in a variety of therapeutic settings involving both infectious diseases and neoplasia, and it will be increasingly difficult to follow the exponentially expanding literature.

Alpha-particle-induced sister chromatid exchange in normal human lung fibroblasts: evidence for an extranuclear target.

Results obtained with normal human cells are similar to those of other investigators who observed excessive SCEs in immortalized rodent cells beyond that which could be attributed exclusively to nuclear traversals by alpha particles, and point to the existence of an alternative, extranuclear target through which alpha particles cause DNA damage, as detected by SCE analysis.

Cytokine-Induced Inflammation in the Central Nervous System Revisited

This review addresses the question as to whether endothelial cells in the CNS respond differently to specific cytokines known to induce either a proinflammatory effect or a regulatory effect in systemic vascular beds.

Clonal and systemic analysis of long-term hematopoiesis in the mouse.

It is demonstrated that single stem cell clones are sufficient to maintain hematopoiesis over the lifetime of an animal and suggested that mono- or oligoclonality may be a hallmark of long-term reconstituted systems.

Infection, inflammation, and cancer

  • R. Darveau
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Biotechnology
  • 1999
This issue designs a Salmonella typhimurium strain that has lost its ability to induce a systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a based inflammatory response, but retains both its tumor targeting and its tumorretarding properties, and exploits expanding knowledge to build a new weapon to fight cancer.

The hematopoietic stroma.

  • N. NardiZ. Z. Alfonso
  • Biology
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • 1999
The composition, ontogeny, and function in physiological as well as pathological conditions of stroma are discussed, which includes, among other cell types, macrophages, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells.

Leukemia relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a review.

The increasing use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) nonidentical donors, and HLA-matched unrelated donors will assure the continued growth in the use of this therapeutic modality.

Medium from irradiinto the thymus in association with apoptosis induced by ated human epithelial cells but not human fibroblasts whole-body X-irradiation

  • International Journal of Radiation Biology
  • 1997