Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

  title={Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter},
  author={The Cms Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group P. Adzic and Nv Almeida and D. Andelin and Ivan Anicin and Zeljko Antunovic and Roberta Arcidiacono and Michael Wayne Arenton and Etiennette Auffray and Stefano Argiro and Alicia Askew and Stefania Baccaro and Stephanie Baffioni and Michael Balazs and D. Bandurin and David Barney and L. M. Barone and Alessandra Bartoloni and Cl{\'e}ment B{\^a}ty and Stephanie Beauceron and Ken W. Bell and Christine Bernet and Marc Besancon and Bl Betev and R. Beuselinck and Cristina Biino and Jakub Bl{\'a}ha and P. Bloch and Andrei E. Borisevitch and Adolf Bornheim and Jean Bourotte and R. Malcolm Brown and M. Buehler and Philippe Busson and B. Camanzi and Tiziano Camporesi and N. Cartiglia and Francesca Cavallari and A. Cecilia and P. Chang and Y. H. Chang and Claude Charlot and E. A. Chen and Wei Ting Chen and Zetong Chen and Remi Chipaux and B. C. Choudhary and Ratan K. Choudhury and David Ja Cockerill and Sergio Conetti and Susan Cooper and Fabio Cossutti and Brian N. Cox and David G Cussans and Ioan Dafinei and D. R. Calafiori and Georgios Daskalakis and Aymeric David and K. Deiters and Marc D{\'e}jardin and Augusto De Benedetti and Giuseppe Della Ricca and Deanna Del Re and Daniel Denegri and Pierre Depasse and J. Descamps and Marcella Diemoz and E. Di Marco and Guenther Dissertori and Michael Dittmar and Lubomir Djambazov and Milan Djordjevic and Lindsay Dobrzynski and A. Dolgopolov and Snezana Drndarevic and G. Y. Drobychev and D. Dutta and Mile D{\vz}elalija and Anna Elliott-Peisert and Houmani El Mamouni and Ilias Evangelou and Bernard Fabbro and Jean Louis Faure and Julia Fay and A. Fedorov and Francesca Ferri and Daniel Franci and Guido Franzoni and Klaus Freudenreich and Wolfgang Funk and Serguei Ganjour and Susan Gascon and M. R. Gataullin and F. X. Gentit and Antonio Ghezzi and Alain Givernaud and S. Gninenko and A. Go and Benigno Gobbo and Nikola Godinovi{\'c} and N. Golubev and Pietro Govoni and N. Grant and Philippe Gras and Maurice Haguenauer and GrazianiG. Hamel de Monchenault and M. Hansen and J. Haupt and Helen F. Heath and B. Heltsley and Werner Hintz and Robert James Hirosky and Peter R Hobson and Atsushi Honma and George W. S. Hou and Yung-Shih Hsiung and Mika Huhtinen and Bernard Ille and Quinn Ingram and Alexander Inyakin and Ph. Jarry and Carolyn Jessop and Dragoslav Jovanovic and Ketino Kaadze and Vassili Kachanov and S. Kailas and Suresh Kataria and Barry W. Kennedy and Panagiotis Kokkas and Ted Kolberg and Mikhail V. Korjik and N. Krasnikov and Dragomir Krpic and Yuto Kubota and Chih Ming Kuo and Paul Kyberd and Aristotelis Kyriakis and Michel Lebeau and Pierre Lecomte and Paul Lecoq and Alexander Ledovskoy and Morgan Lethuillier and Shih Wei Lin and Willy Lin and V. Litvine and E. Locci and E. Longo and D. Loukas and Paul David Luckey and Werner Lustermann and Yu-Feng Ma and Martina Malberti and Julie Malcl{\`e}s and Damjan Maleti{\vc} and Nikolaos Manthos and Yurii Maravin and C. Marchica and Nicol{\`o} Marinelli and A. Markou and Christiana N. Markou and M. Marone and Victor Matveev and C. Mavrommatis and Paolo Meridiani and Predrag Milenovi{\'c} and P. Min{\'e} and Oleg V. Missevitch and Amar Kumar Mohanty and Filip Moortgat and Pasquale Musella and Yuri Musienko and Alessandro Nardulli and Jordan Nash and Patrick N{\'e}d{\'e}lec and P Negri and H. B. Newman and A. Nikitenko and Francesca Nessi‐Tedaldi and Maria Margherita Obertino and Giovanni Organtini and Takashi Orimoto and Marco Paganoni and Pasquale Paganini and Anthonye Palma and L. Pant and A. Papadakis and Ioannis Papadakis and I. Papadopoulos and Riccardo Paramatti and Paulo Parracho and Nadia Pastrone and Jennifer Rees Patterson and Felicitas Pauss and J.-P. Peigneux and Eleni Petrakou and David George Phillips and Pierre Pirou{\'e} and Fotios Ptochos and Ivica Puljak and Antonino Pullia and Thomas Punz and Jovan Puzovi'c and Stefano Ragazzi and Shahram Rahatlou and John Rander and Panos A Razis and Nicola Redaelli and Dieter Renker and S. Reucroft and P. Ribeiro and C. Rogan and Michael Ronquest and Andr{\'e} Rosowsky and Chiara Rovelli and P Rumerio and Roger Rusack and S. V. Rusakov and Mary J. Ryan and L. Sala and Raffaele Salerno and M. Schneegans and Christopher Seez and Pam Sharp and Claire H. Shepherd-Themistocleous and J. G. Shiu and Ram Krishen Shivpuri and P. Shukla and Christos Siamitros and Daniel Sillou and J. Silva and Proa Silva and Alexander Singovsky and Yves Sirois and A. Sirunyan and Virginia J. Smith and Fabian Stockli and Jitamitra Swain and T. Tabarelli de Fatis and Munetaka Takahashi and V. Tancini and O. Teller and K. Theofilatos and Ch. Thiebaux and Vladlen Timciuc and Claire Timlin and Maxim Titov and Anita Topkar and Frixos A Triantis and S. Troshin and N. Tyurin and Kunihiko Ueno and A. Uzunian and J. Varela and P. Verrecchia and Joseph Veverka and T S Virdee and Meitian Wang and D. Wardrope and Mathilde Weber and J. Weng and John H. H. Williams and Yuehai Yang and I. Yaselli and Rachel Paula Yohay and Alexandre Zabi and S. Zelepoukine and Jianpin Zhang and Lian Ying Zhang and Kehan Zhu and R.Jones Yerevan Physics Institute and Yerevan and Armenia and Research Institute for Nuclear Problems and Minsk and Belarus and Technical University of Split and Split and Croatia. and University of Split and University of Cyprus and Nicosia and Cyprus and Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules and IN2P3-CNRS and Annecy-le-Vieux and France and Dsmdapnia and CEA-Saclay and Gif-sur-Yvette. and Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet and {\'E}cole Polytechnique and Palaiseau and Institut de Physique Nucl'eaire de Lyon and 1 Universit'eLyon and CNRS-IN2P3 and Villeurbanne and Institute of Nuclear PhysicsDemokritos and Aghia Paraskevi and Greece. and University of Ioannina and Ioannina and University of Delhi and Delhi and India. and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Mumbai and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e Universita degli St Bicocca and Milano and Italy. and Sapienza Universita di Roma e Sezione dell'INFN and Roma and Universita di Torino e Sezione dell'INFN and Torino and Universita di Trieste e Sezione dell'INFN and Trieste and Laborat'orio de Instrumentaccao e F'isica Experimental de Part'iculas and Lisb{\^o}a and Portugal. and Institute for Nuclear Research and Moscow and Russia. and Lebedev Physical Institute and Ihep and Protvino and Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Belgrade and Serbia and Cern and European Organisation for Nuclear Research and Geneva and Switzerland. and Paul Scherrer Institut and Villigen and Institute for Particle Physics and Eth Zurich and Z{\'u}rich and National Central University and Chung-Li and Taiwan. and National Taiwan Normal University and Taipei and University of Bristol and Bristol and United Kingdom and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and Didcot and Imperial College and University of London and London. and Brunel University and Uxbridge and Northeastern University and Boston and Massachusetts and Usa and University of Virginia and Charlottesville and Virginia. and Cornell University and Ithaca and New York and Kansas State University and Manhattan and Kansas and University of Minnesota and Minneapolis and Mn and University of Notre Dame and Notre Dame and In and California Institute of Technology. and Pasadena and California and Princeton University and Princeton and Nj. and Florida State University and Tallahassee and Fl. and Also at Faculty of Physics of University of Belgrade and N. S. Anka and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Germany and Deceased},
Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered. 

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