Radial glia: multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development

@article{Campbell2002RadialGM,
  title={Radial glia: multi-purpose cells for vertebrate brain development},
  author={Kenneth Campbell and Magdalena G{\"o}tz},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={2002},
  volume={25},
  pages={235-238}
}

Radial glia: a changing role in the central nervous system.

TLDR
Recent studies suggest that not only do radial glial cells give rise to new neurons during development, but that they also may become the neural stem cells that reside in the neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system.

Mechanisms of glial development

Radial glia diversity: A matter of cell fate

TLDR
Findings highlight the important but complex role of radial glia as participants in key steps of brain development and suggest that they are involved in regionalization of the developing nervous system in several aspects.

Neuronal or Glial Progeny Regional Differences in Radial Glia Fate

Glial Cells as the Source of Neurons and Glia in the Developing and Adult CNS

TLDR
The identity, heterogeneity and functions of glial cells in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS) and the possible mechanisms allowing neurogenic radialglial cells to persist into adulthood in various lineages are considered.

Radial ‘glial’ progenitors: neurogenesis and signaling

Investigating radial glia in vitro

Neural stem cells among glia

The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells.

TLDR
The timing in development and location of NSCs, a property tightly linked to their neuroepithelial origin, appear to be the key determinants of the types of neurons generated.
...

References

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Radial glia phenotype: Origin, regulation, and transdifferentiation

TLDR
The perception of radial glia may have to change from that of path‐defining cells to that of specialized precursor cells transiently fulfilling a guidance role during brain histogenesis, which probably constitutes one of the most common transdifferentiation events in mammalian development.

Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage.

TLDR
Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, it is shown that radial glial cells also are neuronal precursors and only later, after neurogenesis, do they shift towards an exclusive generation of astrocytes.

Lineage of radial glia in the chicken optic tectum.

TLDR
To reconcile the observations that many radialglia are present early, that radial glia are among the last offspring of a multipotential stem cell, and that most clones contain only a single radial glial cell, it is suggested that the stem cell is, or becomes, a radial glio cell.

A unified hypothesis on the lineage of neural stem cells

TLDR
It is proposed that the stem cells in the central nervous system are contained within the neuroepithelial → radial glia → astrocyte lineage.

Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex

TLDR
The results support the concept that a lineage relationship between neurons and proliferative radial glia may underlie the radial organization of neocortex.

Characterization of CNS precursor subtypes and radial glia.

TLDR
It is found that almost all radial glial cells proliferate throughout neurogenesis and three distinct subsets identified by immunostaining for the antigens RC2, the astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter (GLAST), and the brain-lipid-binding protein (BLBP) are identified.

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TLDR
Molecular analysis of the genes that mark stages of secondary neurogenesis show similar expression patterns of a number of genes, so these three regions may have genetic pathways in common and be considered for human brain malformations and neurological mutant mice.

Identification of a multipotent astrocytic stem cell in the immature and adult mouse brain.

TLDR
It is concluded that environmental factors, simulated by certain in vitro conditions, transiently confer NSC-like attributes on astrocytes during a critical period in CNS development.
...