Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury

  title={Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury},
  author={Robert T. Carter},
  journal={The Counseling Psychologist},
  pages={105 - 13}
  • R. Carter
  • Published 1 January 2007
  • Psychology
  • The Counseling Psychologist
The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological assessment, research, and training. 
Racism and Pathological Bias as a Co-Occurring Problem in Diagnosis and Assessment
The purpose of this chapter is to explore the social and psychological etiology of racism, to explicate racism as a public health pathogen (i.e., how racism harms our society), and to examine the
Race-Based Traumatic Stress
In 2001, the US Surgeon General issued a report about the status of mental health with respect to racial and ethnic minority groups, which stated that ethnic and racial disparities were likely due to
Racism and Ethnoviolence as Trauma Enhancing Professional and Research Training
In trauma theory, research, and practice, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a syndrome of psychobiological reactions to events perceived as cataclysmic or life threatening, often has been the ...
Racial Trauma: Theory, Research, and Healing Introduction to the Special Issue
The authors encourage psychologists to develop culturally informed healing modalities and methodologically sophisticated research and urge the inclusion of public policy interventions in the area of racial trauma.
Child and Adolescent Trauma across the Spectrum of Experience: Underserved Populations and Psychological Abuse
This article introduces the second in a two-part special issue focusing on child and adolescent trauma across the spectrum of experience. This issue examines current research specifically geared
Attending to racial trauma in clinical supervision: Enhancing client and supervisee outcomes
ABSTRACT This article is focused on racial trauma as a psychological outcome associated with experiences of racism. Guidelines for clinical intervention are presented and the role of the clinical
Race, Trauma, and Education
In this paper, we explore relationships among race, trauma and education. In particular, we discuss the salience of race and racism in influencing trauma and traumatic experiences in schools. We
A Guide for the Treatment of Multiply-Traumatized Youth
It is also provided to the general clinical community, free of charge, on the JohnBriere.com website. 2 Chapter 1 Introduction This guide has been developed to assist clinicians in the evaluation and
A guide to the forensic assessment of race-based traumatic stress reactions.
  • R. Carter, J. Forsyth
  • Psychology
    The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
  • 2009
The analysis of a case study is used to illustrate and extend previous work on the evaluation of racial discrimination by providing a guide to the forensic assessment of the psychiatric and emotional impact of race-based encounters--a guide that can be used both in preparing expert reports and in developing treatment approaches.
Addressing Racial Trauma in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders.
Recognition that trauma is a key contributor to the development of substance use disorders (SUDs) has been critical to developing effective clinical approaches for this patient population.


Racism, Mental Health, and Mental Health Practice
In this article, the authors present an interdisciplinary discussion of the multiple dimensions of racism and formulate conceptions of its impact on the formation of healthy personalities. They
A multidimensional conceptualization of racism-related stress: implications for the well-being of people of color.
  • S. Harrell
  • Psychology
    The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • 2000
A conceptualization of racism-related stress and its impact on well-being is offered that integrates existing theory and research on racism, multicultural mental health, and the stress process. The
Racist Incident–Based Trauma
Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist
Confronting Racism: The Problem and the Response
The contributors to this volume identify the cognitive and motivational influences on the intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup processes that lead to racism. Confronting Racism establishes a
Racism and Mental Health: The African American experience
This paper provides an overview of United States-based research on the ways in which racism can affect mental health. It describes changes in racial attitudes over time, the persistence of negative
The Schedule of Racist Events: A Measure of Racial Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative Physical and Mental Health Consequences
In this article, the authors develop a brief questionnaire that assesses racist discrimination in the lives ofAfricanAmericans, and conduct preliminary studies with it. The Schedule of Racist Events
Physiological responses to racism and discrimination: an assessment of the evidence.
Evidence from survey and laboratory studies suggests that personality variables and cultural orientation moderate the impact of racial discrimination and the notion that direct encounters with discriminatory events contribute to negative health outcomes.
The Many Costs of Racism
This chapter discusses the many costs of white racism, the physical health Consequences of Racism, and Racism and the Health Care System.
  • J. Cohen
  • Psychology
    Issues in mental health nursing
  • 2000
An overview of the stress response is offered, emphasizing the interdependence of the neurobiological components-neurologic, neuroendocrine, and endocrine axes-with emotional, behavioral, and cognitive responses.
Hispanic ethnicity and risk for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
The findings of the NVVRS with regard to race/ethnicity and PTSD are summarized and a careful assessment of both the external and the internal validity of these findings are made.