Racing Pigeons: A Reservoir for Nitro-Imidazole–Resistant Trichomonas gallinae

  title={Racing Pigeons: A Reservoir for Nitro-Imidazole–Resistant Trichomonas gallinae},
  author={Lieze Oscar Rouffaer and Connie Adriaensen and C DE Boeck and Edwin Claerebout and An Martel},
  booktitle={The Journal of parasitology},
Abstract:  Trichomonas gallinae, the cause of avian trichomonosis, is most commonly found in the order Columbiformes. Racing pigeons are often treated preventively with nitro-imidazoles, which could result in the emergence of resistant isolates, and these isolates can be a threat to wildlife when exchanges occur. The sequence type of 16 T. gallinae isolates obtained from racing pigeons and 15 isolates from wild pigeons was determined based on the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region sequence. In addition… 
Comparative pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in healthy and Trichomonas gallinae infected pigeons (Columba livia, var. domestica)
The pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in pigeons was not affected by experimentally-induced trichomoniasis, and five-day oral treatment of infected pigeons with 25 mg/kg metronIDazole twice a day resulted in total eradication of trophozoites recovered in crop lavage of infected birds.
In vitro anti-parasitic activities of Pulicaria dysenterica and Lycopus europaeus methanolic extracts against Trichomonas gallinae
Introduction: Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of trichomoniasis in birds. Although metronidazole is now the drug of choice for treatment of this infection, several studies reported
Antitrichomonal activity of Peganum harmala alkaloid extract against trichomoniasis in pigeon (Columba livia domestica)
Data of the present study suggested P. harmala is a potent natural anti-trichomonal agent, effective against T. gallinae.
In vitro and in vivo activity of Artemisia sieberi against Trichomonas gallinae.
In Iranian folk medicine Artemisia sieberi has been used for treatment of parasite infections in human and animals and is introduced as a natural potent antitrichomonal agent effective against T. gallinae.
Evaluating the in vitro effects of free essential oils and nanostructured Ocimum basilicum and Eucalyptus globulus against trophozoites of T. gallinae indicates that OEs and nanoemulsions may contribute as effective agents in the control of the parasite.
In vitro assessment of anti-Trichomonas effects of Zingiber officinale and Lavandula angustifolia alcoholic extracts on Trichomonas gallinae
This study delineated the equal efficiency of L. angustifolia and Z. officinale with that of metronidazole in inhibiting the growth of Trichomonas gallinae trophozoites in culture media.
Antitrichomonal activity of metronidazole-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles in pigeon trichomoniasis.
The development and characterization of metronidazole-loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles (nano-MTZ) and their antitrichomonal activity on Trichomonas gallinae, the protozoal causative agent of pigeon trichomoniasis are described and suggested that nanolact oferrin is a promising platform for the development of novel MTZ formulations with improved antitrichmonal activity.
In vitro and in vivo evaluations of Pelargonium roseum essential oil activity against Trichomonas gallinae
P. roseum EO is introduced as a potent natural antitrichomonal agent effective against T. gallinae both in vitro and in vivo and compares it to that of metronidazole (MTZ) as a standard antitRichomonal drug.
In vitro and in vivo activity of the essential oil and nanoemulsion of Cymbopogon flexuosus against Trichomonas gallinae
It can be observed in this study that the lemon grass has natural potential antitrichomonal activity against T. gallinae in vitro and in vivo.


In vivo and in vitro sensitivity of Trichomonas gallinae to some nitroimidazole drugs.
Prevalence and genotyping of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons and birds of prey
Two genotypes (A and B) in isolates from both groups of birds were showed, although genotype prevalence differed in each group—genotype A being more prevalent in columbiforms and genotype B in raptors.
The incidence of the parasitic disease trichomoniasis and its treatment in reintroduced and wild Pink Pigeons Columba mayeri
It is likely that Trichomoniasis and other diseases will continue to affect the Pink Pigeon's recovery and the species may require long-term management to counteract the effects of disease and other limiting factors.
Molecular Characterization of the Trichomonas gallinae Morphologic Complex in the United States
The results of the sequence analysis strongly suggest at least 2 species may exist within the T. gallinae morphologic complex, and both T. vaginalis-like and T.Gallinae isolates involved in trichomoniasis outbreaks in California and Arizona are suggested.
In vitro effect of tinidazole and furazolidone on metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis
Tinidazole and furazolidone, a nitrofuran presently used to treat giardiasis and infections with some anaerobic enteric bacteria, were investigated for effectiveness against T. vaginalis patient isolates and data suggest that furzolidone may be a good candidate for treating metronidazoles-resistant trichomoniasis.
Outbreak of trichomoniasis in a woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) wintering roost
The gathering of the woodpigeons at game bird feeders set up for red-legged partridges may have contributed to the outbreak of trichomoniasis, and treatment of free-living birds should be avoided in favour of other measures, as it poses risks.
Challenge Infection as a Means of Determining the Rate of Disease Resistant Trichomonas Gallinae-Free Birds in a Population
It was concluded that these birds had been previously infected and spontaneously lost their trichomonad fauna while retaining their resistance to fatal infection.
Failure of nitro-imidazole drugs to control trichomoniasis in the racing pigeon (Columba livia domestica).
The nitro-imidazole drugs ronidazol. dimetridazol, metronidazol and carnidazol failed to control Trichomonas gallinae in the racing pigeon, presumably due to acquired drug resistance.