Racialization and the State: The Housing Act of 1934 and the Creation of the Federal Housing Administration

  title={Racialization and the State: The Housing Act of 1934 and the Creation of the Federal Housing Administration},
  author={Kevin Fox Gotham},
  journal={Sociological Perspectives},
  pages={291 - 317}
  • K. Gotham
  • Published 1 June 2000
  • Economics
  • Sociological Perspectives
Research examining the impact of corporate interests, state structures, and class contradictions on the state policy formation process has been dominated by three major theoretical perspectives: business dominance theory, state-centered theory, and Marxian structuralism. I argue that these existing perspectives pay insufficient attention to race and racial discrimination as a central component in the formulation and implementation of state policy. This article uses the concept of racialization… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Government policy, housing, and the origins of securitization, 1780--1968
In 1968 the Johnson Administration transformed Fannie Mae, the federal agency responsible for supporting the nation's secondary mortgage market, into a privately owned but federally supported company
The Racial Politics of Place
White civic leaders worked with the Federal Housing Administration and Resettlement Administration on the Virginia Peninsula in the mid-1930s to build two suburban subdivisions for poor and
The Racism-Race Reification Process
The author makes the argument that many racial disparities in health are rooted in political economic processes that undergird racial residential segregation at the mesolevel—specifically, the
Legacies of the Residential Security Maps: measuring the persistent effects of redlining in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
In the late 1930’s, the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, under the direction of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, constructed Residential Security Maps that graded the housing markets of over 200
The state market relationship as a real estate technology: FHA multifamily development and preservation, 1934 – present
ABSTRACT Between the 1930s and the 1950s the United States Federal Housing Administration (FHA) developed a set of programs to spur the private development of hundreds of thousands of multifamily
Making Markets on the Margins: Housing Finance Agencies and the Racial Politics of Credit Expansion1
Widespread reliance on credit increasingly defines realities of economic citizenship in American society. This article theorizes the racial politics of credit expansion. It examines the federal
At the Boundaries of Homeownership: Credit, Discrimination, and the American State
In the United States, homeownership is synonymous with economic security and middle-class status. It has played this role in American life for almost a century, and as a result, homeownership's
The dilemma of ‘racial profiling’: an abolitionist police history#
Abstract While the conquest of the world by the concept of ‘racial profiling’ was a major victory for activists, real victory for racial justice at the hands of the police was foreclosed, for the
Theorizing the US Racial State: Sociology Since Racial Formation
This article reviews theoretical developments in the sociology of the US racial state since the publication of Michael Omi and Howard Winant's groundbreaking Racial Formation in the United States.
History lessons for today's housing policy: the politics of low-income housing
History offers valuable lessons to housing policymakers. For those who would devise new low-income housing programs during today's trying economic circumstances, it is helpful to study the strategies


A central concern of political theorists has been the relationship between the state and the economy, or more specifically, how political power gets translated into economic power. Recent debates
Corporate Mobilization and Political Power: The Transformation of U.S. Economic Policy in the 1970s
Despite their otherwise divergent arguments, pluralist, state-centered, and neo-Marxist "relative autonomy" conceptions of political power in capitalist societies share the view that the "capitalist
Modern housing for America : policy struggles in the New Deal era
The basic shape of American federal policy in housing as in many other areas, was determined during the New Deal, but not without conflict among movements and intellectuals advocating alternative
The racial basis of capitalism and the state, and the impact of the New Deal on African Americans
This paper describes the ways in which African Americans were written out of or subordinated within the social policies of the New Deal period. To explain this feature of the New Deal, I argue that
The state in capitalist society
Presenting a sustained and concrete challenge to the current political consensus, this reference identifies the radical alternative of adopting socialism as the key issue facing civilization and the
Social Protest, Hegemonic Competition and Social Reform: The Political Origins of the American Welfare State
Recent neo-Marxian and state-centric analyses of the origins of the American welfare state have misspecified the autonomy of the state, thereby conflating policy formulation with policy-making and
The Transformation of the Southern Racial State: Class and Race Determinants of Local-State Structures
Theories of the state are unable to explain intrastate variation in policy implementation because they tend to focus on the highest levels of the state hierarchy and ignore local-state institutions.
Suburbia under siege: Low‐income housing and racial conflict in metropolitan Kansas City, 1970–1990
This article examines racial conflicts over efforts to build low‐income government‐subsidized housing in Kansas City suburbs from 1970 to 1990. Drawing on public documents, housing reports and
Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960
This book analyses the expansion of Chicago's Black Belt during the period immediately following World War II. Even as the civil rights movement swept the country, Chicago dealt with its rapidly
Political sociologists studying social classes, state structures, and public policies are engaged in a debate between "society-centered" and "state-centered" theories. We challenge the state-centered