Racial disparities in breast cancer outcome

  title={Racial disparities in breast cancer outcome},
  author={Romano Demicheli and Michael W. Retsky and William J. M. Hrushesky and Michael J. Baum and Isaac D. Gukas and Ismail Jatoi},
Since the 1970s, overall age‐adjusted breast cancer mortality rates in the U.S. have been higher among African American (AA) women than among Caucasian American (CA) women. The racial disparity is not fully explainable based on socioeconomic factors. Suspected biologic factors underlying this trend may be interpreted by both epidemiologic and clinical perspectives. Descriptive epidemiologic studies suggest that breast cancer may be a mixture of at least 2 main diseases and/or causal pathways… 

Disparities in breast cancer outcomes between Caucasian and African American women: a model for describing the relationship of biological and nonbiological factors

The present review describes the biological basis of the four major disparities - early age of onset, more advanced stage of disease, more aggressive histologic changes, and worse survival - and the important relationship to the nonbiological factors.

Variation in tumor natural history contributes to racial disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis

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Variation in breast cancer subtypes with age and race/ethnicity.

Distinctions in Breast Tumor Recurrence Patterns Post-Therapy among Racially Distinct Populations

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Disparities in race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: risk of mortality of breast cancer patients in the California Cancer Registry, 2000–2010

When analysis of breast cancer-specific mortality is adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, ER/PR/HER2 subtype, and tumor grade and cases compared within stage and SES strata, much of the black/white disparity disappears.

Disparities in breast cancer treatment and outcomes: biological, social, and health system determinants and opportunities for research.

Recognition that variation in cancer care quality may be correlated with race (and socioeconomic and health system factors) may assist policy makers in identifying strategies to more equally distribute clinical expertise and health infrastructure across multiple user populations.

A Critical Theoretical Approach to Cancer Disparities: Breast Cancer and the Social Determinants of Health

This article suggests ways of addressing breast cancer disparities, including methods of training healthcare professionals and public policy directions, that include rather than marginalize Black and lower socioeconomic status women.



Racial differences in survival from breast cancer. Results of the National Cancer Institute Black/White Cancer Survival Study.

Almost 75% of the racial difference in survival was explained by the prognostic factors studied, and Sociodemographic variables appeared to act largely through racial differences in stage at diagnosis, which may be amenable to change through improved access to and use of screening for black women.

Distinct breast cancer incidence and prognostic patterns in the NCI’s SEER program: suggesting a possible link between etiology and outcome

Distinct incidence and prognostic patterns among high-risk and low-risk breast cancers suggest a possible link between breast cancer etiology and outcome, and epidemiologic results appear to complement emerging molecular genetic techniques, showing distinct genotypes for high- risk andLow- risk breast cancer phenotypes.

Racial differences in survival from breast cancer.

This investigation is one of the most complete, well-designed, and well-conducted studies to determine the nature of racial differences in breast cancer survival, and the data-collection methods, management of confounding factors, and statistical analyses were exceptional.

Disaggregating the effects of race and poverty on breast cancer outcomes.

  • O. Brawley
  • Medicine
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • 2002
This study demonstrates that socioeconomic factors that act largely through and are associated with race are responsible for much of the disparity between black and white women, and discredit the hypothesis that race is an inherent determinant of the biologic behavior of breast disease.

Breast cancer trends among black and white women in the United States.

The widening racial disparity in breast cancer mortality seems attributable to calendar period rather than birth cohort effects, and differences in response or access to newer medical interventions may largely account for these trends.

Is Male Breast Cancer Similar or Different than Female Breast Cancer?

Gender-specific incidence trends differed, most likely reflective of female-related changes in surveillance and/or reproductive risk factors, but similar prognostic factor profiles suggested that male breast cancer was more like postmenopausal than premenopausal female breast cancer.

Widening disparity in survival between white and African‐American patients with breast carcinoma treated in the U. S. Department of Defense Healthcare system

Trends in survival among white and African‐American women diagnosed with breast carcinoma in the U. S. are compared to the DoD, an equal access healthcare system, to examine this issue further.

[Epidemiology of breast cancer].

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Racial Differences in Premenopausal Endogenous Hormones

Hormone differences consistent with breast cancer risk between Caucasians and African Americans but inconsistent with breastcancer risk between Asian Americans and Caucasians are shown.

Effects of Screening Mammography on the Comparative Survival Rates of African American, White, and Hispanic Beneficiaries of a Comprehensive Health Care System

Mammographic screening as a diagnostic tool appears to equalize survival among whites, Hispanics, and African Americans, in spite of differences in age, stage of diagnosis, and military rank used as a proxy for socioeconomic status.