Racial/Ethnic Differences in Primary Care Experiences in Patient-Centered Medical Homes among Veterans with Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders

Abstract

Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) may be effective in managing care for racial/ethnic minorities with mental health and/or substance use disorders (MHSUDs). How such patients experience care in PCMH settings is relatively unknown. We aimed to examine racial/ethnic differences in experiences with primary care in PCMH settings among Veterans with MHSUDs. We used multinomial regression methods to estimate racial/ethnic differences in PCMH experiences reported on a 2013 national survey of Veterans Affairs patients. Veterans with past-year MHSUD diagnoses (n = 65,930; 67 % White, 20 % Black, 11 % Hispanic, 1 % American Indian/Alaska Native[AI/AN], and 1 % Asian/Pacific Island[A/PI]). Positive and negative experiences from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) PCMH Survey. Veterans with MHSUDs reported the lowest frequency of positive experiences with access (22 %) and the highest frequency of negative experiences with self-management support (30 %) and comprehensiveness (16 %). Racial/ethnic differences (as compared to Whites) were observed in all seven healthcare domains (p values < 0.05). With access, Blacks and Hispanics reported more negative (Risk Differences [RDs] = 2 .0;3.6) and fewer positive (RDs = −2 .3;-2.3) experiences, while AI/ANs reported more negative experiences (RD = 5.7). In communication, Blacks reported fewer negative experiences (RD = −1.3); AI/ANs reported more negative (RD = 3.6) experiences; and AI/ANs and APIs reported fewer positive (RD = −6.5, −6.7) experiences. With office staff, Hispanics reported fewer positive experiences (RDs = −3.0); AI/ANs and A/PIs reported more negative experiences (RDs =  3.4; 3.7). For comprehensiveness, Blacks reported more positive experiences (RD = 3.6), and Hispanics reported more negative experiences (RD = 2.7). Both Blacks and Hispanics reported more positive (RDs = 2.3; 4.2) and fewer negative (RDs = −1.8; -1.9) provider ratings, and more positive experiences with decision making (RDs = 2.4; 3.0). Blacks reported more positive (RD = 3.9) and fewer negative (RD = −5.1) experiences with self-management support. In a national sample of Veterans with MHSUDs, potential deficiencies were observed in access, self-management support, and comprehensiveness. Racial/ethnic minorities reported worse experiences than Whites with access, comprehensiveness, communication, and office staff helpfulness/courtesy.

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-016-3776-1

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Cite this paper

@article{Jones2016RacialEthnicDI, title={Racial/Ethnic Differences in Primary Care Experiences in Patient-Centered Medical Homes among Veterans with Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders}, author={Audrey L. Jones and Maria K. Mor and John P. Cashy and M.P.H Adam J. Gordon and Gretchen L Haas and James H. Schaefer Jr M.P.H. and Leslie R. M. Hausmann}, journal={Journal of General Internal Medicine}, year={2016}, volume={31}, pages={1435-1443} }