The impact of race and sex on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions remains incompletely understood. Specific data on patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and outcomes of black versus white patients are poorly described. To further evaluate these issues, we analyzed the New Approaches in Coronary Interventions (NACI) registry.
Patients (200 black, 4279 white) undergoing coronary interventions in the NACI trial were compared. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which baseline demographics were independent risk factors for the combined end point of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, and coronary artery bypass grafting at 1 year.
Black patients were significantly younger (age 59 +/- 11 vs 63 +/- 11 years; P <.001), more often obese (29.6 +/- 6 vs 27.5 +/- 4.8 kg/m(2); P <.001), female (50% vs 34%; P <.001), diabetic (34% vs 21%; P <.001), and hypertensive (71% vs 52%; P <.001). Black patients were significantly more likely to have single-vessel disease (48% vs 40%; P <.05) and less likely to have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (26% vs 34%; P <.05). Blacks were significantly more likely to have a discrete lesion (85% vs 62%; P <. 001) with less thrombus (7% vs 12%; P <.05), tortuosity (17% vs 25%; P <.05), and an ulcerated appearance (5% vs 10%; P <.05). Despite these significant baseline differences, no significant difference was seen in the procedural success (80% vs 82%) or major adverse events (death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, any revascularization) at 1 year (39% vs 34%). Predictors of adverse events for white patients included diabetes (relative risk [RR] = 1.24; confidence intervals [CI], 1.0-1.5) and high-risk status (RR = 1.58; CI, 1.26-1. 91). Predictive characteristics of adverse events for black patients included only sex (RR = 3.45; CI, 1.27-9.35; P =.02).
There are significant differences in baseline characteristics of black patients compared with white patients. Despite these differences in traditional risk factors, they do not affect procedural success or 1-year outcome. In black patients, only sex predicted adverse events. Additional investigation is required to understand the mechanisms for this difference.