Race and Ethnicity, Mental Health Services and Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System: Are we Ready to Change?

  title={Race and Ethnicity, Mental Health Services and Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System: Are we Ready to Change?},
  author={Annelle B. Primm and Fred C. Osher and Marisela B. Gomez},
  journal={Community Mental Health Journal},
By the end of 2003, 3.2% of the U.S. adult population or 6.9 million adults were incarcerated, on probation or on parole. While non-whites constitute approximately 25% of the general U.S. population, they represent the majority of the prison (62%) and jail population (57%), a 33% increase since 1980. Approximately 15% of this prison and jail population has active symptoms of serious mental illness with two-thirds likely to have a co-occurring substance use disorder diagnosis. Meanwhile, the… 

Mental Health in U.S. Prisons: How Our System Is Set Up For Failure

During the past 60 years, United States prisons have become one of the primary institutions caring for mentally ill individuals. Factors such as privatization of mental health care with a focus on

Race and access to mental health and substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system

ABSTRACT We study racial disparities in treatment for substance abuse/mental illness in the justice system by interviewing Parole Officers (POs). POs report financial and cultural barriers to mental

Disparities in Sentencing: The Impact of Race, Gender and Mental Health

DISPARITIES IN SENTENCING: THE IMPACT OF RACE, GENDER AND MENTAL HEALTH Briana Paige Old Dominion University, 2019 Director: Dr. Tracy Sohoni The purpose of this study is to examine the effect that

Racial/Ethnic Differences of Justice-Involved Youth in Substance-Related Problems and Services Received

  • L. Heaton
  • Psychology
    The American journal of orthopsychiatry
  • 2018
American Indian/Alaska Natives and multiracial youth were significantly more likely to have substance problems, to be under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of the current offense, and to have a history of substance problems and a lifetime suicide attempt compared to African Americans.

Substance abuse treatment in correctional versus non-correctional settings: Analysis of racial/ethnic and gender differences.

Modifying roles for race/ethnicity and gender in the relationship between several factors and treatment utilization in a jail or prison versus non-correctional treatment settings are identified.

The Invisible War: A Portrait Of Structural Racism and Mental Health in the Life of a Formerly Incarcerated U.S. Born Africana Man

This study examines the ways in which a formerly incarcerated U.S. born Africana man age 47 perceives, interprets, and copes with being criminalized and disenfranchised by interacting institutions

The role of race in court-ordered pretrial psychiatric evaluations

Abstract The current study examines whether racial differences exist for defendants referred by criminal courts for pretrial psychiatric evaluations across demographic, clinical, and criminal history

The impact criminal history has on the employability of African American and Latino populations with disabilities receiving state vocational rehabilitation services: Implications for adding a criminal history variable to the RSA-911 data

How the omission of criminal history has and will continue to have a significant impact on those clients in securing employment; and indirectly, affecting the success rate of VR.

Alcohol and Substance Abuse in African Americans

The impact of substance abuse in the community, the epidemiology of substance Abuse in American Americans, and approaches to prevent or treat it are discussed.



Mental Health and Incarcerated Youth. I: Prevalence and Nature of Psychopathology

The incarceration of mentally ill youth is a serious problem not receiving the same attention as in adults. In this study, we examine the prevalence of psychopathology and level of behavioral

Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention.

These results suggest substantial psychiatric morbidity among juvenile detainees and pose a challenge for the juvenile justice system and, after their release, for the larger mental health system.

Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity—A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General

This Supplement documents that the science base on racial and ethnic minority mental health is inadequate; the best available research indicates that these groups have less access to and avail-ability of care, and tend to receive poorer quality mental health services.

Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in youths across five sectors of care.

Youths who were active in the MH and SED sectors were more likely than those not in these sectors to meet criteria for a disorder; youths in the CW sector were least likely.

Young Black Americans and the Criminal Justice System: Five Years Later

In 1990 The Sentencing Project released a report that documented that almost one in four (23 percent) African American males in the age group twenty to twenty-nine years old was under some form of

Prevalence of common psychiatric disorders among American Indian adolescent detainees.

Females were significantly more likely than males to have major depression and/or anxiety disorders and were significantlyMore likely to have three or more disorders and be higher in comparison with general and Indian adolescent community samples.

Psychiatric comorbidity and the 16-month trajectory of substance-abusing and substance-dependent juvenile offenders.

Comorbidity for externalizing disorders was associated with high rates of antisocial behavior and predicted worse 16-month outcomes than substance abuse alone or substance abuse with comorbid internalizing disorders.

Persons with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: a review.

One of the greatest problems of deinstitutionalization has been the very large number of persons with severe mental illness who have entered the criminal justice system instead of the mental health

Patterns and determinants of public shelter utilization among homeless adults in New York City and Philadelphia

Administrative data on public shelter utilization among homeless adults from New York City (1987–1994) and Philadelphia (1991–1994) are analyzed to identify the relative proportion of shelter users

Patterns and Determinants of Public Shelter Utilization among Homeless Adults in Philadelphia and New York City

Administrative data o n public shelter utilization among homeless adults from New York City (1 987-1 994) and Philadelphia (1 991-1 994) are analyzed to identify the relative proportion of shelter