Race Times for Transgender Athletes

@inproceedings{Harper2015RaceTF,
  title={Race Times for Transgender Athletes},
  author={Joanna Harper},
  year={2015}
}
In recent years, organizations such as the International Olympic Committee have created regulations to allow those athletes who have undergone gender reassignment to compete in their chosen gender. Despite these rules, there is still a widespread belief that transgender female athletes have an inherent advantage over 46,XX female competitors. Until now, there has not been any published data, based on performances of transgender athletes, to either support or refute this belief. There are two… 

Tables from this paper

Beyond Fairness: The Biology of Inclusion for Transgender and Intersex Athletes.
In November 2015, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) reached a consensus on “Sex Reassignment and Hyperandrogenism” allowing transgender athletes to compete after one year of hormone
Fairness for Transgender People in Sport
  • J. Safer
  • Medicine
    Journal of the Endocrine Society
  • 2022
TLDR
There does not seem to be any reason to expect advantage for Transgender people prior to puberty of or for transgender people whose gender-affirming treatment begins at the onset of puberty, and the existing literature suggests that treatment to lower testosterone may be sufficient to erase that advantage in at least some athletic activities.
The Fluidity of Gender and Implications for the Biology of Inclusion for Transgender and Intersex Athletes.
TLDR
A system to deal with gender variant athletes that relied on a determination of an "athlete/athletic gender" was presented to multiple audiences, and the resulting survey is included, and a large majority of participants agreed with the idea of an athlete gender.
Comment on: “Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies”
TLDR
A more nuanced argument is needed to understand the inclusion policies aimed at this special population of transgender females, as there is evidence to the contrary that transgender females have no athletic advantage at any stage of transitioning when competing against cisgendered females.
The Chance to Be Champions: Discrediting the Myth That Transgender Athletes Are Not Damaging to Women’s Sports
Have you ever stopped to consider whether unfair competition in sports can be a form of discrimination? The federal case Soule v. Connecticut Association of Schools grapples with this very question.
Transgender Women in the Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on Testosterone Suppression and Performance Advantage
TLDR
It is reported that the performance gap between males and females becomes significant at puberty and often amounts to 10–50% depending on sport, and is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and explosive strength, particularly in the upper body.
Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Is the Male Performance Advantage Removed by Testosterone Suppression?
TLDR
Current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed, and sports organizations may be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
Implications of a Third Gender for Elite Sports.
TLDR
For this perspective, issues raised by intersex and transgender athletes in women’s sport are focused on because it is generally assumed that transitioning from a woman to a man would not confer a similar competitive advantage.
Transwoman Elite Athletes: Their Extra Percentage Relative to Female Physiology
  • A. Heather
  • Biology, Education
    International journal of environmental research and public health
  • 2022
TLDR
The former male physiology of transwoman athletes provides them with a physiological advantage over the cis-female athlete and how estrogen therapy fails to create a female-like physiology in the male is addressed.
Gender determination in sport
Many sports distinguish between female and male disciplines. The key reason for such division stems from the physiological characteristics that might give men the advantage over women in specific
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 14 REFERENCES
Transsexual Bodies at the Olympics: The International Olympic Committee's Policy on Transsexual Athletes at the 2004 Athens Summer Games
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has always been plagued by what queer theorist Judith Butler calls gender trouble. In 2000, the IOC discontinued their practice of sex-testing because
Transsexuals and competitive sports.
TLDR
The conclusion is that androgen deprivation in M-F increases the overlap in muscle mass with women but does not reverse it, statistically, which raises the question of whether reassigned M-f can fairly compete with women.
Gender verification of female athletes
TLDR
The history and rationales for fairness in female-only sports that have led to the rise and fall of on-site, chromosome-based gender verification at international sporting events are reviewed.
Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes
TLDR
The new policies in response to Caster Semenya's case are questioned on three grounds: the underlying scientific assumptions; the policymaking process; and the potential to achieve fairness for female athletes.
Sports Justice: The Law and the Business of Sports
Americans, brought up playing or watching sports, absorb the notions of fair play not simply as integral themes of sportsmanship on the field, but also as values they try to carry into their everyday
Serum androgen levels in elite female athletes.
TLDR
This is the first study to establish normative serum androgens values in elite female athletes, while taking into account the possible influence of menstrual status, oral contraceptive use, type of athletic event, and ethnicity.
Models for comparing athletic performances
TLDR
A parametric form is suggested which can be useful for characterizing the change in performance with distance and described jointly the decrease in several world records over several years and so to predict lower bounds on these records.
Endocrine profiles in 693 elite athletes in the postcompetition setting
To measure a profile of hormones in a group of elite athletes. Increasing awareness of the widespread use of hormones as performance‐enhancing agents focusses attention on what may be considered as
Age-specific reference ranges for serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations in women measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
TLDR
This is the first study to establish age-specific reference ranges for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-measured TT and AD and calculated free T concentrations based on quantile regression analyses, accurately accounting for the observed low concentration range and the strong age dependency of these sex hormones in women.
Statement of the Stockholm consensus on sex reassignment in sports.
  • Schamasch
  • 2003
...
...