Rac1 and extracellularly regulated kinase activation are sufficient for E1A-dependent cooperative transformation of primary epithelial cells, but progression can only be modulated by E1A or Rac1.


Ras transformation of fibroblast cell lines requires activation of multiple distinct signal pathways that act synergistically. E1A-ras cotransformation of primary epithelial cells is enhanced by distinct mutations in the second exon of E1A, resulting in "hypertransformation" and metastasis. The molecular and cellular differences in the in vitro properties… (More)