author={Klara Gad{\'o} and Gyula Domj{\'a}n and Hargita Hegyesi and Andr{\'a}s Falus},
  journal={Cell Biology International},
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a currently incurable disease caused by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells. Although the pathogenesis of the disease still remains unclear, recent research in the biology of MM has produced new insights into the factors that control the growth and survival of myeloma cells. Among the growth factors, interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) has an essential role. Evidence suggests that IL‐6 is not only a growth factor, but also a survival factor in MM, inhibiting apoptosis in… 
Mechanisms of sensitization to apoptosis in multiple myeloma.
It is demonstrated that the mTOR-inhibitor rapamycin alone induced apoptosis in primary MM cells and inhibition of GSK3 counteracts growth inhibition induced by dexamethasone alone and in combinatorial treatments with inhibitors against PI 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), mTOR and IGF-1R.
Targeting signalling pathways for the treatment of multiple myeloma
Close collaboration between basic researchers and clinicians will be required to further improve the knowledge of MM pathophysiologically in order to translate advances from the bench to the bedside and improve patient outcome.
Tumor-associated macrophages in multiple myeloma: advances in biology and therapy
An updated and comprehensive overview into the current knowledge on the roles of TAMs in MM, as well as the therapeutic targets that are being explored as macrophage-targeted immunotherapy, which may hold key to future therapeutics against MM are provided.
Immunological Prognostic Factors in Multiple Myeloma
This review focuses on characterizing the components of the immune system that are of prognostic value in MM patients, in order to facilitate the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic directions.
Multiple Myeloma : an update on disease biology and therapy
Recent developments in the molecular pathogenesis of myeloma are discussed and novel therapeutic approaches that target both the tumor cell as well as the stroma are discussed.
The role of IL-29 in immunity and cancer
The Effect of Telomerase Inhibition on the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines Affecting the Pathogenesis of Multiple Myeloma Cell Line U266
The effect of MST-312 (a derivative of green tea with telomerase inhibition activity) was investigated on the treated U266 cell line and the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Activation of sphingosine kinase mediates suppressive effect of interleukin‐6 on human multiple myeloma cell apoptosis
Results delineate a key role for SPHK activation in IL‐6‐induced proliferation and survival of MM cells, and suggest that SPHK may be a potential new therapeutic target in MM.
Obesity and Multiple Myeloma
Obesity is consistently associated with increased risk and drives mechanistic pathways important in its development and diagnosis and treatment of MM patients are considered in the context of obesity as a cause with potential impact on treatment and outcomes.
Extracellular S100A9 Protein in Bone Marrow Supports Multiple Myeloma Survival by Stimulating Angiogenesis and Cytokine Secretion
The data suggest that extracellular S 100A9 promotes MM and that inhibition of S100A9 may have therapeutic benefit, and that ABR-238901 treatment in combination with bortezomib resulted in an increased reduction in tumor load compared with single treatments.


Role of cytokines in multiple myeloma.
Infection of dendritic cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, which secretes a viral homolog of IL-6, may also be a factor and several immune-based treatment strategies are being developed.
Interleukin-6 in human multiple myeloma.
The purpose of this review was to provide a critical analysis of the literature addressing the role of IL-6 in MM as compared with that in the generation of normal plasma cells and to relate MM biology to recent knowledge of B-cell imm~nopoies and to IL-7,IL-6 receptors, and IL- 6-mediated transduction signals.
Interleukin‐6 in multiple myeloma and related plasma cell dyscrasias
Advances in understanding of interleukin-6 signaling cascades mediating MM growth and survival, as well as its impact on cell cycle regulation in MM cells, may lead to therapeutics designed to interfere with these pathways.
Update of gp130 cytokines in multiple myeloma
  • B. Klein
  • Biology
    Current opinion in hematology
  • 1998
This work reviews the recent data on gp130 cytokines and gp130-mediated signal transduction, their involvement in myeloma cell biology, and the possible therapeutic applications of this knowledge.
Growth control mechanisms in multiple myeloma.
Data is summarized showing that cell growth arrest brought about by type I (IFNs-alpha/beta) and type II (IFN-gamma) IFNs occurs in part through utilization/modification of various components of the otherwise stimulatory Jak-STAT and Ras signaling pathways triggered by IL-6.
Cytokine network in human multiple myeloma.
Development of an interleukin (IL) 6 receptor antagonist that inhibits IL-6-dependent growth of human myeloma cells
A novel mutant protein is constructed in which two different mutations are combined that individually disrupt the association of the IL-6/IL-6 receptor (R) alpha complex with the signaltransducing "beta" chain, gp130, but leave the binding of IL-7 to IL- 6R alpha intact.
Soluble interleukin‐6 receptor as a prognostic factor in multiple myeloma
It is shown that raised levels of sIL‐6R were associated with shorter survival and measurement of these parameters at diagnosis would help to stratify MM patients.
Growth regulatory pathways in myeloma. Evidence for autocrine oncostatin M expression.
The nature of the response elicited by OSM in myeloma cells is distinct from its effects on normal B lineage cells, and the effects of OSM on normal, in vitro-generated plasmablasts are analyzed.