RNA Polymerase Backtracking in Gene Regulation and Genome Instability

@article{Svetlov2012RNAPB,
  title={RNA Polymerase Backtracking in Gene Regulation and Genome Instability},
  author={Vladimir Svetlov},
  journal={Cell},
  year={2012},
  volume={149},
  pages={1438-1445}
}
RNA polymerase is a ratchet machine that oscillates between productive and backtracked states at numerous DNA positions. Since its first description 15 years ago, backtracking--the reversible sliding of RNA polymerase along DNA and RNA--has been implicated in many critical processes in bacteria and eukaryotes, including the control of transcription elongation, pausing, termination, fidelity, and genome instability. 
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